Technology innovation

Integration of the single modalities in hybrid equipment (PET/CT, PET/MR) that allow the acquisition of a comprehensive set of information, leading to extremely accurate diagnostic examinations and considerable advantages related to patient’s comfort, whom will likely perceive both examinations as one shot.

Botsourcing and Outsourcing: Robot, British, Chinese, and German Workers Are for Thinking—Not Feeling—Jobs

Technological innovations have produced robots capable of jobs that, until recently, only humans could perform. The present research explores the psychology of "botsourcing"—the replacement of human jobs by robots—while examining how understanding botsourcing can inform the psychology of outsourcing—the replacement of jobs in one country by humans from other countries. We test four related hypotheses across six experiments: (1) Given people’s lay theories about the capacities for cognition and emotion for robots and humans, workers will express more discomfort with botsourcing when they consider losing jobs that require emotion versus cognition; (2) people will express more comfort with botsourcing when jobs are framed as requiring cognition versus emotion; (3) people will express more comfort with botsourcing for jobs that do require emotion if robots appear to convey more emotion; and (4) people prefer to outsource cognition-oriented versus emotion-oriented jobs to other humans who are perceived as more versus less robotic. These results have theoretical implications for understanding social cognition about both humans and nonhumans and practical implications for the increasingly botsourced and outsourced economy.

Technological innovations have produced robots capable of jobs that, until recently, only humans could perform. The present research explores the psychology of "botsourcing"—the replacement of human jobs by robots—while examining how understanding botsourcing can inform the psychology of outsourcing—the replacement of jobs in one country by humans.

Ecology: Organizations

3.2 Technological Processes

Technological innovation influences organizational populations profoundly by disrupting markets, changing the relative importance of resources, challenging organizational learning capabilities, and altering the basis of competition (see Technology and Organization ). Supporting Schumpeter’s characterization of technological innovation as a process of creative destruction, research supports the idea that technologies evolve over time through cycles of long periods of incremental change, which enhance and institutionalize an existing technology, punctuated by technological discontinuities in which new, radically superior technologies displace old, inferior ones, making possible order-of-magnitude or more improvements in organizational performance (Tushman and Anderson 1986 ).

The new technology can either be competence-enhancing, building on existing knowhow and reinforcing incumbents’ positions, or competence-destroying, rendering existing knowhow obsolete and making it possible for newcomers to become technologically superior competitors. The technological ferment spawned by the discontinuity ends with the emergence of a dominant design, a single architecture that establishes dominance in a product class (Anderson and Tushman 1990 ), and technological advance returns to incremental improvements on the dominant technology. Although the universality of this technology cycle is debated, it has proved illuminating in a wide variety of industries.

Technological innovation creates opportunities for entrepreneurs to found new organizations and establish competitive positions as incumbents’ sources of advantage decay. Technological innovation also creates uncertainty and risk for incumbents because its outcomes can be only imperfectly anticipated. An innovation’s impact may not be known until it is too late for incumbents using older knowhow to compete successfully with new competitors; gambling too early on a given innovation may jeopardize an incumbent’s survival if that technology turns out not to become dominant. Thus, underlying technologies and technological innovation may influence organizational populations’ competitive dynamics and evolution profoundly. Ecological research relating technology cycles to population dynamics, although limited in scope, yields compelling support for this assertion (Baum 1996 ). Although past research typically treats technological change as exogenous, studying how ecological processes shape technological change can deepen our understanding of technology cycles by examining the dynamics of organizational support for new technologies.

Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer

Historical Perspective and Technological Advances

Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen is generally credited with the first description of what he called “x-rays” when in 1896 he presented a lecture entitled “Concerning a New Kind of Ray.” His work led to the rapid emergence of the study of diagnostic radiology and earned him the first Nobel Prize in Physics in 1901. Shortly thereafter, radiation was also being utilized to treat a variety of skin diseases, including cancer ( n.a., 1983 ). However, it took several more decades and the discovery of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) before it was understood that the primary mechanism for the effect of radiographs on tissues was via ionization and production of DNA damage, either directly or via free radical production.

The first documented radiotherapeutic approach to treatment of prostate cancer was by Pasteau and Degrais in 1911, who described using an intraurethral radium source, with modifications of this approach later utilized by Young and Fronz in 1917.

There are reports of external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) using kilovoltage radiation for the treatment of prostate cancer between 1930 and 1955 ( Attwater, 1930 ; Hultberg, 1946 ). However, a problem inherent to kilovoltage radiation is a high deposition of dose at the skin, limiting the ability to deliver tumoricidal doses of radiation to the prostate because of unacceptable skin and normal tissue toxicity. Further technical advances would be required before RT could achieve greater efficacy and safety. Several relevant considerations exist when delivering therapeutic radiation, particularly in a relatively deep-seated internal organ such as the prostate:

High-Energy Linear Accelerators

5. Analytics and Visualization

Data availability has exploded — modern corporations have access to vast amounts of complex data, both internal and from the public domain. The breadth and depth of data available require new ways to summarize, visualize, and present data. Novel ways to experience data and insights could involve intelligent interactive synopsis and ‘data navigation’ systems, VR and AR experiences, voice-driven insights discovery, and ‘personalized data exploration’ scenarios. I do believe that there are great new ways to visually browse and understand data, discover and explore hidden structures, trends, and patterns.

Blockchain is one of the most disruptive technologies out there. Its distributed, decentralized, and immutable properties make it the ideal way to store and track data across numerous domains and use cases.

I see significant new applications and novel scenarios beyond crypto-currencies and fin-tech. Startups are already working on novel concepts that make sense to leverage blockchain. In the years to come, some of these will disrupt social, government, and even political aspects of our world — for example here is an idea on how to leverage blockchain and related technologies like IPFS to set the basis for solving the Fake News problem.

7. Robotics

Robots are already here, in one form or another. Regardless of the particular class — humanoids, nano-robots, military, industrial, and so on — the progress is impressive. On one hand, it is the advances in terms of hardware, sensors, and operating software; on the other hand, it is the progress of Artificial Intelligence that makes it possible to integrate cognitive services and dramatically increase Robot’s capabilities for real-time decision making.

In the near future, we will start to meet Robots with proactive behaviors, advanced context understanding, able to adapt to human sentiment, enforce ‘personalities’ and communication styles.

Technology innovation can take many forms — for instance, novel software implementing new algorithms and data processing models; or new hardware components (sensors, processors, components); or improved user interfaces offering seamless experiences; it can also happen at a higher level, in the form of new processes, business models, monetization engines, and so on.

And this is the real opportunity for the developers out there — to combine all the latest technologies and advances and build unique user experiences, empowering their end-users; to leverage reusable APIs and the capabilities of cloud computing, the rich content available in the public domain, the knowledge, the ideas, and even the global connected communities to make an impact by solving major problems in novel ways.

Technology innovation

South Korean startup Ghost Kitchen provides individual kitchen spaces to quickly start delivery businesses. At present, the startup owns 143 kitchens with adequate hygiene management and workflow from material storage to cooking, packaging, and delivery. Also, Ghost Kitchen enables data-driven planning services through a shared data collection from the entire individual kitchens. In effect, the startup minimizes expenses for contracts and interiors by directly offering standalone kitchens for restaurants and other food delivery entrepreneurs.

Wisedoc: Its time to evolve from using ancient word processing softwares & start adopting Wisedoc Akash Kannegulla, Founder & CEO, Wisedoc


Technological innovation has been a leading agent of social change, worldwide, since the late 1700s, serving as the conduit into society of developments in science and technology. As such, it has been at the center of ethical issues ranging from the morality and justice of the early Industrial Revolution to the consequences of genetic engineering, nanotechnology, and artificial intelligence (AI). In spite of its extraordinarily high social visibility, however, innovation is almost universally misunderstood and misrepresented, typically as synonymous with invention. Invention, in turn, is presented as a value-free, hence ethically neutral, application of new or existing technical knowledge. Treating innovations as inventions implies that ethical issues associated with their implementation derive not from factors intrinsic to innovations, but from how society chooses to implement them. Such an interpretation frees innovators from moral responsibility for the ethically problematic consequences of their activities, as well as buffering these activities from public assessment.

Innovation is a social process in which technical knowledge and inventions are selectively exploited on behalf of (corporate or government) institutional agendas driven by marketplace values or political policies. Inventions, and more broadly scientific and engineering expertise, are merely raw materials for technological innovation, which is the value-laden, ethically provocative process that determines whether an invention is introduced into a society, the form in which it is introduced, and the direction of its subsequent development as society responds to the innovation. The introduction of the automobile, television, nuclear power plants, and the Internet are examples of the value-laden innovation process, including how societal responses feed back into the course of innovation developments over time.

Conceptual Emergence and Practical Engagement

After World War I, individual thinkers, among them the American economist Thorstein Veblen (1857–1929) and future U.S. president Herbert Hoover (1874–1961), argued that technological innovation would be central to national security and industrial competitiveness. Only in Germany, however, was there a strong national commitment to an innovation-driven military and industrial agenda, initiated by Prince Otto von Bismarck in the 1860s and developed further by all subsequent German governments, especially the National Socialists. In the United States and Great Britain, by contrast, calls for such national commitments were repeatedly rejected. For example, George Ellery Hale (1868–1938), one of the world’s leading astronomers and the person responsible for maintaining America’s leadership in telescopy from 1897 into the 1980s, failed in his attempt to win government acceptance of his plan to harness academic scientists to the nation’s war effort during World War I. He failed again in his postwar attempt to create a national research foundation to be cosponsored by the federal government and major corporations.

Since 1970 research by historians of technology has supported a version of the Project Hindsight conclusion. While basic research sometimes pushes innovation, innovation far more often pulls research, which may then enable further innovation. The exponential growth of innovation in the semiconductor and computer industries exemplifies this relationship.

Bush’s report and its basic science push model nevertheless anchored postwar-U.S. science and technology policy. For the first time in U.S. history, there was a mandate for large-scale federal support of basic as well as applied scientific research. The ethics of giving scientists public funds to do research on subjects of their choice gave rise to contentious political debates that held up creation of the NSF in 1950. But the NSF budget for basic research was then and has remained modest compared to the budgets for applied research linked to innovation, which until 1989 was driven primarily by Cold War military agendas and secondarily by the evolving war on cancer, war on AIDS, and Human Genome Project agendas of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and the U.S. space program.

Discover all Food Tech Technologies & Startups

The top 10 food technology trends advance research in sustainable food sources and food waste elimination. Also, rapid improvement in Industry 4.0 is unavoidable in the food industry for improved efficiency, consistency, and scale. 3D food printing is a promising technology to facilitate food production and aid other main trends, ensuring further investment in the 3D food printers and bio-inks. In addition to the major trends, advances in artificial intelligence and big data analytics are valuable for optimizing the food industry operations. Altogether, the food & beverage is moving towards sustainability while improving the overall operational efficiency.

The Food Technology Trends & Startups outlined in this report only scratch the surface of trends that we identified during our in-depth research. Among others, AI & big data will transform the sector as we know it today. Identifying new opportunities and emerging technologies to implement into your business early on goes a long way in gaining a competitive advantage. Get in touch to easily and exhaustively scout relevant technologies & startups that matter to you.

Technology innovation

How does Hollywood lure consumers away from their big-screen TVs and YouTube and back out to the movies? Jeffrey Katzenberg preaches that theaters need to go home systems one better by showing 3-D films, and he’s hell-bent on pushing the entire industry that way.

Blockchain Applications

25 Innovators in Technology

They’re changing the way we do business (and not always for the better). Don’t miss features on Twitter CEO Evan Williams, Google’s gambit with the power grid, and an essay about CEO Steve Jobs’ leave of absence from Apple.

Major Impact: Google towers over the internet era. It controls 64 percent of Web searches, and search is most people’s gateway to what they want to do on the Net. Google owns 57 percent of the market for placing ads on websites. The company operates three dozen massive data centers around the world-giving it, by some estimates, more computing power than any single entity on earth. As if that weren’t enough, Google keeps using its brand, power, and $15.8 billion in cash to stomp like colonialists into other companies’ businesses. Its Android cell-phone operating system encroaches on Apple’s and BlackBerry’s territory. This year, Google is expected to try to grab market share from Microsoft’s Internet Explorer with its Chrome browser and invest heavily in alternative-energy businesses. Wherever Google aims its guns, industries go on red alert.

Eccentric Project: They’re everywhere at Google. One employee wrote code so that people can search in pirate language. Another created a hidden joke: Try typing "Find Chuck Norris" in the search box and click I’m feeling lucky.

2. Jeff Bezos
CEO, Amazon

Bezos also turned into a devicemaker with the kind of design chops and user adoration usually reserved for Apple-and made publishers rethink their business models. In late 2008, Oprah gave Amazon’s Kindle an on-air endorsement, momentarily sending its shares skyward.

Eccentric Project: Blue Origin, which is building rockets for space tourism. First scheduled flight: 2010. Speculation is that it will be possible to hear Bezos’ laugh from space.

3. Steve Jobs

Such is his influence that Steve Jobs stays on the list even during his absence from Apple. He is to the tech industry in the 2000s what the Beatles were to popular music in the 1960s. The iPod changed the music business, and the iPhone and App Store continue to shake up the mobile-phone industry. Before the iPhone, the cell-phone business was all about the size and form of the device. Now the emphasis is shifting to software and what the handset can do.

For now, Apple has the momentum to thrive without its CEO, but the question is whether that can continue if Jobs does not return in June from his leave to deal with his serious health issues. Apple doesn’t seem on the verge of taking on another industry or coming out with a radical new product, and no one is sure whether it could pull off a new revolution without Jobs’ help.

For more than a decade, pundits have predicted that the Web would transform politics. Joe Rospars finally did it. Rospars, still in his 20s (who over 30 would know how to do all this?), served as new-media director for the Obama campaign and used Facebook, MySpace, YouTube, Twitter, text messaging, and electronic fundraising to interact with supporters. Rospars got his start working the Web for Howard Dean’s 2004 presidential bid, then used that knowledge to co-found Blue State Digital. After Obama, campaigns are knocking on the company’s door.

It seems like a no-brainer to redirect the Department of Energy from developing nuclear weapons to fighting global warming, and Steven Chu is the guy to do it. A bona fide scientist, Chu has Obama’s go-ahead to make greentech a priority. Chu has run the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory since 2004 and won a Nobel Prize for figuring out how to cool and trap atoms for examination. He’s long worked on energy and climate-change projects. Last year, he told Reuters, "If I were emperor, I would put the pedal to the floor on energy efficiency and conservation."

Back in 1981, Shigeru Miyamoto created Donkey Kong, Nintendo’s first smash hit. But that was nothing compared with the Wii, Miyamoto’s brainstorm that came out in late 2006. By making videogames simple to control with hand gestures, the Wii revitalized the entire industry. Nintendo has sold more than 36 million Wii consoles, and Wii Sports recently became the bestselling game of all time. (It passed
Super Mario Bros., another game Miyamoto helped create.)

In 2007, Jason Kilar, a preppy former executive, won the job of creating an online TV outlet for a Fox-NBC partnership. It seemed an impossible task, given the anemic results for all previous online-TV efforts. But Kilar coaxed NBC and Fox to post popular content like Saturday Night Live and The Simpsons, added some interactive bells and whistles, and made Hulu simple to use. Launched in March 2008, Hulu was, by fall, streaming more than 235 million videos a month, thanks to SNL clips of Tina Fey as Sarah Palin. Kilar is proving that professional content paid for by advertising has a place on the Web. The networks owe him a pile of gratitude, if not money.

Innovation Map outlines the Top 10 Food Technology Trends & 20 Promising Startups

For this in-depth research on the Top Food Technology Trends & Startups, we analyzed a sample of 5 065 global startups and scaleups. The result of this research is data-driven innovation intelligence that improves strategic decision-making by giving you an overview of emerging technologies & startups in the food industry. These insights are derived by working with our Big Data & Artificial Intelligence-powered StartUs Insights Discovery Platform, covering 2 093 000+ startups & scaleups globally. The platform quickly delivers an exhaustive overview of emerging technologies within a specific field as well as identifies relevant startups & scaleups early on.

In the Innovation Map below, you get an overview of the Top 10 Food Industry Trends & Innovations that impact food tech companies worldwide. Moreover, the FoodTech Innovation Map reveals 20 hand-picked startups, all working on emerging technologies that advance their field. To explore custom insights, simply get in touch with us.

Top 10 Food Technology Trends


Tree Map reveals the Impact of the Top 10 Food Technology Trends

The Tree Map below illustrates the top 10 Food Technology trends that will impact companies in 2022. Consumers shifting to alternative protein sources is the most significant trend in the food industry. Further, the increased awareness of nutrition and health concerns during the pandemic drives the demand for nutraceuticals and personalized nutrition. Food eCommerce is another big trend that is fueled by the COVID-19 situation. Also, there is a substantial rise in food safety concerns directly impacting food transparency across the food value chain. With digitization being an integral part of the food and beverage industry, companies are adopting restaurant digitization, digital food management, and food robotics to improve operations. Food brands are also focussing on food waste reduction and are adopting zero-waste practices. 3D food printers are also a part of the food technology trends, enabling many other major trends such as meat alternatives and personalized nutrition.



Yet another application of AI, generative AI is set to raise the standards of AI use cases and provide reasons for organizations around the world to adopt it. It works on an algorithm that has the capability to use data in form of text, audio, images, and so on and generate similar content. This self-learning algorithm allows for higher-quality outputs. This application of AI comes with its set of limitations, and thus provides room for innovations and opportunities to come up with technologies/ways to tackle them. Healthcare can be majorly benefitted from generative AI, and IBM has already begun to leverage it by researching Antimicrobial peptides to find drugs for Covid-19. Gartner predicts that by 2025, generative AI may account for 10% of all data produced, which currently lies at 1% today.

From smart cars to wearables such as smartwatches, to TVs, smartphones, and more, various technologies have resulted in making our lives more convenient and tech-driven. IoT is one of the major driving technologies behind this connectedness of smart devices. The number of wearable connected devices is forecasted to reach more than 1 billion by 2022 as per Statista . With many more brands entering this segment, we can expect newer and interesting features added to the list. The wearables market, though dominated by smartwatches, is seeing many new products such as hearables, smart patches, and more. Applications of smart wearables in today’s Covid-19 era, to track Covid symptoms was a relevant and much-needed innovation and will continue to be as we fight to get rid of Covid-19 in 2022 too. Presently 4G, but 5G soon too will help with the connectivity of such devices. As per Statista, the number of wearable devices linked to 4G will increase by 89 million in 2022, connecting over 900 million people. Newer innovations such as smart helmets are also about to experience growth as they come with interesting features such as tracking speed, stamina, listening to music, GPS services, and more.

Smart Car

Cloud-Native Platforms (CNPs)

Gartner predicts that by 2025, 95% of all new digital initiatives will have CNP as their foundation, up from the current 40% in 2021. In the current times, the need to adopt cloud-native application/approach rather than the traditional on premises approach of infrastructure is more evident than ever. Mckinsey reports that by 2022, more than 70% of enterprises will depend on some form of cloud management tool for various business purposes. Taking cloud computing up a notch, CNPs aim to make infrastructure management effortless. Speed of service, reduced costs, auto scalability and more are some benefits of CNP. The global cloud revenue is $474 billion in 2022, as it becomes the core of business operations in this ever-so digitized world.

Revolutionizing the retail industry, this AR/VR trend is making heads turn with its innovative and catchy virtual try-on capability. In-store- AR mirrors/Smart mirrors provide a delightful experience to customers as they allow them to virtually try on clothes which also saves their time and effort to a great extent. According to Businesswire , the application of VR and AR in the retail market is projected to reach US$ 17864.86 million by 2028 from US$ 3790.94 million in 2021 at a CAGR of 24.8% for the forecasted period. This depicts the scope of innovation and adoption that is about to happen in this field. As of now, only major brands such as Ikea, Loreal, Nike, and so on are leveraging the potential of AR/VR applications in retail and hopefully, 2022 will see further increased adoption. Read more about applications of AR/VR we can see in the retail sector in 2022 and beyond here .



In a sphere with so much diversity, there are a few things that all entrepreneurs have in common: they’re full of passion and ambition, and they use these as a driving force to build empires that solve some of the world’s toughest problems.

what is entrepreneurship


Entrepreneurship bezeichnet zum einen das Ausnutzen unternehmerischer Gelegenheiten sowie den kreativen und gestalterischen unternehmerischen Prozess in einer Organisation, bzw. einer Phase unternehmerischen Wandels, und zum anderen eine wissenschaftliche Teildisziplin der Betriebswirtschaftslehre. Die Entrepreneurship-Forschung (auch Gründungsforschung) präsentiert sich als ein interdisziplinäres Forschungsgebiet. Neben betriebswirtschaftlichen Theorien kommen im Rahmen von Forschungsarbeiten u.a. auch methodische Ansätze aus der Volkswirtschaftslehre, der Geografie, der Soziologie, der Psychologie und der Rechtswissenschaft zum Einsatz.

Entrepreneurship bezeichnet zum einen das Ausnutzen unternehmerischer Gelegenheiten sowie den kreativen und gestalterischen unternehmerischen Prozess in einer Organisation, bzw. einer Phase unternehmerischen Wandels, und zum anderen eine wissenschaftliche Teildisziplin der Betriebswirtschaftslehre. Die Entrepreneurship-Forschung (auch Gründungsforschung) präsentiert sich als ein interdisziplinäres Forschungsgebiet. Neben betriebswirtschaftlichen Theorien kommen im Rahmen von Forschungsarbeiten u.a. auch methodische Ansätze aus der Volkswirtschaftslehre, der Geografie, der Soziologie, der Psychologie und der Rechtswissenschaft zum Einsatz.

Bedeutung des Unternehmers bzw. des Unternehmensgründers

Ökonomische Theorien haben den Unternehmer als zentrale Figur wirtschaftlicher Aktivität lange Zeit vernachlässigt. Erste Erklärungsversuche zur Rolle des Unternehmers finden sich zwar bereits gegen Ende des 18. Jahrhunderts; verstärkt in den Blick der ökonomischen Theoretiker gerückt ist der Unternehmer jedoch erst im Laufe des 20. Jahrhunderts. Im zeitgeschichtlichen Ablauf sind dabei verschiedene Definitionen für den Begriff des Entrepreneurs vorgeschlagen worden, aus denen in der Folge eine Reihe verschiedener wissenschaftlicher Schulen entstanden ist. Nachstehend wird eine Auswahl einflussreicher Vertreter der Ökonomie und deren Definition des Unternehmers dargestellt; zusammengenommen geben diese ein umfassendes Bild der vielfältigen möglichen Unternehmerfunktionen.

1) Cantillion (1734): Cantillion sieht den Entrepreneur als ein Individuum, das von seinem Streben nach Profit angetrieben wird und mit der Fähigkeit ausgestattet ist, Güter billig zu erwerben und teurer zu verkaufen. Der Entrepreneur zeichnet sich durch die Übernahme von Risiken aus.

3) Knight (1921): Für Knight ist der Unternehmer vornehmlich ein Träger von Ungewissheit (true uncertainty). Dieser Ungewissheit kann im Gegensatz zum Risiko keine exakte Eintrittswahrscheinlichkeit zugeordnet werden. Der Wille, sich dieser unkalkulierbaren Ungewissheit zu stellen, begründet nach Knight den wahren Unternehmer.

5) Kirzner (1973): Die Unternehmerfunktion nach Kirzner ist geprägt durch die Nutzung von Arbitragemöglichkeiten. Unvollständige Informationen auf einem Markt werden zum unternehmerischen Vorteil genutzt und es entsteht ein neues Marktgleichgewicht. Der Kirznersche und der Schumpetersche Entrepreneur ergänzen sich folglich zu einem umfassenden Konzept.

Importance of Entrepreneurship

what is entrepreneurship

  • Entrepreneurs create jobs: Without entrepreneurs, jobs wouldn’t exist. Entrepreneurs take on the risk to employ themselves. Their ambition to continue their business’ growth eventually leads to the creation of new jobs . As their business continues to grow, even more jobs are created.
  • Entrepreneurs innovate : Some of the greatest technologies in today’s society have come from businesses. The technological advances come out of a need to solve a problem, create efficiencies, or improve the world. In periods where there’s more advancement in technology, there’s usually an entrepreneur to thank for it.
  • Entrepreneurs create change: Entrepreneurs dream big. So naturally, some of their ideas will make worldwide change. They might create a new product that solves a burning problem or take on the challenge to explore something never explored before. Many aim to make the world better with their products, ideas, or businesses.
  • Entrepreneurs give to society: While some have this notion of the rich being evil and greedy, they often do more for the greater good than the average person. They make more money and thus pay more in taxes, which helps fund social services. Entrepreneurs are some of the biggest donors to charities and nonprofits for various causes. Some seek to invest their money in creating solutions to help poorer communities have access to things we take for granted, like clean drinking water and good health care.
  • Entrepreneurs add to national income: Entrepreneurship generates new wealth in an economy. New ideas and improved products or services from entrepreneurs allow for the growth of new markets and new wealth.

Modern Perspective of Entrepreneurship

Along with some other disciplines, the study of entrepreneurship is also paving its way as an important sub-discipline in many universities and colleges. This means that modern youth is extensively interested in pursuing entrepreneurship as a career path.

Due to this reason, several courses have been introduced related to entrepreneurship. Like any other important and popular discipline, entrepreneurship is also growing rapidly. Today, more and more people are in favour of becoming independent in their professional careers and therefore, there are fewer criticisms to be faced by any aspiring entrepreneur.

Social media age

Living in the social media age sure has some advantages if you have chosen entrepreneurship as your career. Modern day entrepreneurs have the perk of expanding their businesses and reaching out to the target audience with the help of social media.

This eventually provides the opportunity for any entrepreneur to pave his way into the global marketplace. Entrepreneurship in the modern world is something any independent individual with leadership quality would opt for.

Modern day entrepreneur

With the advent of social media age and advanced technologies, entrepreneurship became more complex. Even though there are several ideas and techniques that may be used during entrepreneurial ventures, this somehow does not make the life of an entrepreneur easy. With multiple marketing techniques, reaching out to the target audience became easy.

However, it also increased the workload of an entrepreneur. With the demanding marketplace, the need of innovative ideas also increased along with the desire to be unique in your business venture. Therefore, in entrepreneurship, the many advantages that may be gained by an entrepreneur are also accompanied by a few disadvantages.

Outlook of modern-day entrepreneurship

Some of the aspiring entrepreneurs may have the advantage of being supported by their families when laying down the foundation for their entrepreneurial venture. However, today an independent entrepreneur is highly appreciated as entrepreneurs are considered as risk takers who are willing to reach the heights in the corporate world with their own hard work. The risk of starting everything from scratch is not the kind of risk everyone has the will and courage to take.

Challenges / criticism

Due to popular belief, entrepreneurship is considered to be an easy way out for people not in favour of working under or for someone else. In several ways, many aspects of this statement might be completely true. However, just like any other profession, being an entrepreneur and choosing entrepreneurship as a career may come with several challenges. There are multiple criticisms and challenges that every entrepreneur may face throughout their career.

Monotonous ideas

The stress of coming up with an innovative idea that has not been used in the market before always lingers on every entrepreneur. When choosing entrepreneurship as a career path, it is crystal clear that the only way to stay on top of the corporate world is by coming up with brand new ideas. Creativity is the key to success in entrepreneurship.

However, with such a vast global marketplace, the ideas proposed are often monotonous which leads to the trouble of disapproval from the critics. This is the most common yet crucial challenge that is faced by every entrepreneur.

Disadvantage of being a start-up business

One of the most crucial and problematic disadvantages is the challenge of being a start-up business in the market. This challenge often leads to the trouble of working late hours during the initial phase of your business.

It is often a very crucial challenge to be the start-up business in the corporate world and then pave your way to the top. When facing dynamic and extensive competition, paving your way to the top may not be a very easy task!

Major responsibilities

One of the perks of choosing entrepreneurship as your career is the independence that you get by being an entrepreneur. However, being in charge of a unified team and having complete control over the decisions you make comes with a lot of responsibility.

This might prove to be very challenging for your business. Being the in charge means being responsible for anything that may go wrong in the business. This may prove to be very challenging for any entrepreneur.

Risks of success or failure

There are several risks that may come along with entrepreneurship. Like mentioned earlier, an entrepreneur is responsible for several things. The risks associated with adopting and implementing new and innovative ideas may sometimes result in failure.


How to Hire a Content Writer (The Right Way)

Once you begin contacting some possible new content creators, you want to begin to pay close attention to their responses. Much of your communication is going to be digital, not in person. Digital communication makes building a relationship and getting to know them a bit different than a regular in-person interview. However, the same principles still apply.

content writer scripted

How to Hire a Content Writer (The Right Way)

If you’re a content marketer, then you understand the struggle of keeping up with your loyal customer base. Curating content includes more than just writing. It involves editing, graphics creation, branding, marketing and more. And your content must be engaging, educational and entertaining at all times.

It can be daunting to hire outside help, for fear of ruining your business reputation and status. It may take some time and effort, but the right fit is out there. It’s possible to choose freelance content writer successfully; you simply need to know where to look.

These skilled content writers exist, and they can help generate new leads for your business. They can add value and authority to your blog and online content that otherwise would have gone unnoticed. You need them for your overall success.

Look at Content Writer’s Past Experience

working experience content writing

Once you have narrowed it down to a few freelancers, you think you may want to contact, go ahead and give each one a little more consideration. Review their portfolios and past work. Take the time to read their writing and see if their style, voice, and perspective are in line with you and your business.

If you run a beauty product company, you may come across a talented, skilled writer whose past work is mostly in engineering and mechanics. Perhaps this individual, although professional, is not a good fit for the type of audience you are trying to connect with.

Look for a person, who has experience or in-depth interest in your field. A writer who specializes in marketing isn’t probably a good fit. Content Marketing Institute writes that many copywriters are eager to accept work from anywhere. But writing about energy-efficient window installations and organic acne treatments will cause them to spread themselves thin. This way one hardly gains knowledge and experience in a field.

Step #2: Define Your Content Needs

You want to hire content writers whose strengths align with your needs. Your writer can be the best landing page copywriter but be mediocre at crafting an interesting story in your articles; the same can be said for many other content types.

For example, I love writing articles and related content like emails and ebooks, but I’m not comfortable writing technical copy because it’s not my specialization. I could do it, but you may not receive the best ROI from my skills.

Look at what the writer has done in the past; in there, you will find not only what they are most experienced with, but you will also see what they can do with each content type. Find the patterns that you find and base your decision on them.

Be clear on what you want before you hire content writers. If you want fun and lighthearted content, look for writers that consistently write with those attributes. Take a look at their portfolio and see how they write there. The same applies to specialties; for example, if you want an email writer, look for writers who explicitly say they are good at writing emails.

Save Yourself Some Time: Hire a Content Agency Instead

Content marketing agency

Content Agencies Do A LOT

Agencies have editors on staff to make sure your content is fact-checked and ready for publishing, and they’ve already vetted their staff to ensure that they can meet and exceed the needs of each and every client.

Content comes in many different forms, and the only way to know what types of content perform best for your brand is to measure site traffic, click-through rates, and other data. With a thorough analysis of results, you can build upon your existing content strategy and make even better content moving forward.

Digital agencies also make it a point to hire content marketers with different backgrounds and different types of experience. Whether you’re publishing a science blog, running a tech company, or selling fashion accessories, a great agency can provide you with a content writer who has expertise in your specific niche.

Providing your audience with quality content is the best way to build brand awareness and generate sales. If content isn’t already at the top of your to-do list, it’s time to make it a priority and find a content marketing writer who can exceed results and increase traffic to your site.

Sure, you may be able to get away with hiring a single content writer in the beginning. But when you start to see results and need to ramp up content creation, an agency with a full staff will be right there and ready to scale as your business grows.


Here s How to Deal With Rejection in a Healthy Way, According to Psychologists

After you’ve taken some time to calm down and get grounded, it’s important to pay attention to what you’re feeling — and a great way to do this is write it all down in a journal. One exercise you can do, says Becker-Phelps, is to write down all the emotions you’re feeling — and then pair them with the thoughts that are going with those emotions. “Just by doing that, you’re getting some distance, and then you can cope with the rejection better, because you’re not just all tangled up in it,” she says.

How to Deal With Rejection

Here’s How to Deal With Rejection in a Healthy Way, According to Psychologists

How to Deal With Rejection

We’ve all been rejected at one point or another — whether it be from a new love interest, a job you applied to, or a group of friends. Whichever kind of rejection you’re facing, the fact of the matter is that rejection hurts and when you put it out all on the line only to get a heartbreaking “no,” it’s enough to make anyone want to stop trying to put themselves out there for anything.

When you let rejection hold you back like this, though, it can wreak havoc on all aspects of your personal life. In fact, according to Leslie Becker-Phelps, Ph.D., psychologist and author of Bouncing Back from Rejection: Build the Resilience You Need to Get Back Up When Life Knocks You Down, dealing with rejection in unhealthy ways can not only negatively impact your personal relationships, but can even lead to debilitating conditions such as depression and anxiety.

Fortunately, though, there are ways you can deal with rejection that can help you come out of it stronger. Getting rejected doesn’t have to be the end-all be-all, and the experience can actually help you in the long run to become more resilient in your life. So if you’re wondering how to deal with rejection from friends, family, coworkers, or a crush, here are some of the best psychologist-approved tips and techniques to help you bounce back from the experience:

Examine your own role in why you got rejected.

Some rejections truly aren’t as personal as they feel. Love rejection on Tinder, for example, simply means that some stranger took all of 20 seconds to make a snap judgment based on criteria you’ll never be privy to. But if, say, you used to be a member of the office happy hour crew and your after-work drink invites have suddenly vanished, it may be time to review your possible role in why that came to be.

Think back to the last time you spent with the party in question (you know, the rejecter) , whether it was on a date or in a job interview. Winch suggests a mental replay of what, to your best recollection, you said or did, and how they reacted. Is there anything you could’ve done differently to improve the encounter, or can you at least prevent it from happening again in the future?

“This isn’t to say the other person had no responsibility,” Winch says, “but the value in that examination is to learn what we might need to be mindful of what we hadn’t paid sufficient attention to previously.”

Don’t Look Back with Rose-Colored Glasses

When we experience a rejection, we are often more inclined to build up whatever or whoever is rejecting us. Jobs can start to sound better when we don’t get them. Dates may appear more attractive after they don’t call back. And relationships that were rocky or made us miserable may start to seem blissful once they’ve ended. Dealing with a rejection is a lot harder when we are mourning something that didn’t really exist the rosy way we remember it.

Often, couples who struggle with closeness are already dealing with some degree of what Dr. Robert Firestone calls a “fantasy bond,” an illusion of connection and security that replaces real love, intimacy, and affection. They settle for the form of being in a relationship, while missing out on the real respect, warmth, and attraction that drew them together in the first place. Eventually, when one partner decides to end the relationship, the other person is left mourning, not only the relationship, but the fantasy they created of being connected to the other. They forget or ignore the ways they struggled, the parts of them that didn’t gel so well with the other person, and the qualities they didn’t like in their partner or about the relationship.

When we feel rejected, even when we feel anger at the other person or the situation, we’re often, on some level more willing to tear ourselves apart, while building up the one who’s rejecting us. We idealize the person or the relationship and long for it, while simultaneously reinforcing the idea that we are less than or unworthy. What we must realize is that this feeling of unworthiness often has much deeper roots inside us, and what’s tormenting us often has less to do with the actual reality of what we lost and more to do with a fundamental negative feeling about ourselves that drives us to believe fantasy over reality.

Redirect your thoughts on moving forward

You’ve faced rejection and survived it, now don’t let it hold you back from life! How will you apply what you learned to the future? What life advice did the situation give you? The best part of rejection is looking forward and learning not to be so hard on yourself in the future. “Moving on can mean finding the courage to try again, whether that’s going up for another promotion or asking someone out for coffee,” Savage says.

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How to Write a Paper About Psychology

How to Write a Paper About Psychology

Psychology is a special subject with special needs. If you miss out on the requirements, you mess the whole assignment. Are you struggling to write a psychology paper? The following are guidelines to help you write one:

Decide Which Subject About Psychology You Want To Write About

There are different aspects of psychology, for example, clinical psychology, children development, cognitive psychology, and social psychology. Each of these disciplines requires different information. Therefore, before you decide on which subject to delve in, ensure you read and understand each of them. After that, select the one that you feel comfortable writing about. If you are not sure, psychological books and internet resources will help you distinguish them and make a wise decision. 


Doing research is the key to writing an incredible paper regardless of your field of study. In psychology, you need to read psychological books. Additionally, reach out to internet resources. Since psychology is vast, you have to be sure of where you do your research. For example, if you intend to write about a disorder and the type of therapy psychologists perform, you should focus on clinical psychology related sources. Psychology often takes time to comprehend. Therefore, do not hurry your research process. Be slow, but extract quality data for your paper. 

Listen To Podcasts

Listening to podcasts is a rare habit. Most psychological topics have successful stories embedded in them. Listening to these stories through podcasts will better your understanding and keep you open-minded. Choose podcasts that relate to the topic you are writing. Additionally, ensure you check the creator of the podcast before you listen to it, and select ones created by psychology experts. 

Seek Online Writing Services

If you are a psychological student, or you want to learn about psychology, you will attest to its uniqueness. It requires some level of understanding, a quality that takes time for some students to develop. If you face challenges writing a psychology paper, turn to a website offering college paper writing service for help. Let them complete the paper for you and learn from them.

Create an Outline

Like other college papers, psychology-related papers follow specific guidelines. Before you write one, ensure that you have the correct guideline by creating a draft outline and presenting it to your supervisor for approval. Outlines guides and make your final writing easier. If you skip this phase, you may end up deviating from the course guidelines and make too many errors.

Write the Paper

You have the information you require. You also have a condensed and approved outline. Now it is time to write the paper. Do it carefully and pay attention not to misspell psychological terms. While it is mandatory to edit your paper, avoid making errors at this stage to make sure you shorten your editing time. However, this is not the stage to stress out. Write the paper the best way possible then check the mistakes later. 


In psychology, you will encounter too much jargon and unfamiliar terms. If you misuse or misspell them, you may not get the grades you desire. That is why it is significant to edit after you have finished writing. Check for grammatical errors, plagiarism, and others. 


The first edit in psychology may not guarantee your paper the perfection it deserves. Read it aloud as you listen. Give a friend also to read it aloud for you. Ask them their opinion. In case there are mistakes, correct them.


By now, you should be able to attempt your psychology papers. However, if you still cannot get it right, continue practicing until you nail it.


I agree that mindfulness should ultimately be developed into theory mainly because of the immense interaction that it plays with the human brain. As portrayed by Dr Siegel, mindfulness can be classified using the three R’s namely: reflection, relationships and resilience. It is important to however start nurturing this principle to an individual at an early stage of their lives to reap significant benefits from the same.

It is true that resilience is a focal point within the air force as our commander mainly focuses on mental, spiritual and physical resilience. These three can be linked to mindfulness which forms another reason as to why I believe it should be developed into theory. Resilience mainly focuses on the brain and how it is effectively able to adapt well in the face of challenging times.

I particularly enjoyed his focus on relationships especially since technology has really taken dominance of our lives endangering the solidity of relationships we have today. I agree with his point that the number one contributor to happiness and wisdom is fostering of positive relationships. That the more we give to others the happier we also become showing that happiness can also be achieved when material things are not the subject. Happiness has always been linked with reduced stress and improved health showing that mindfulness has some health benefits if properly nurtured.

Parents should guide their children especially with the reflection phase enabling them to learn how to observe and interpret different things in life. In this way, children will grow up with significant knowledge and will also know the importance of having positive relationships from a young age.

How Can Evolutionary Psychology Help Us in Real Life?


Evolutionary psychology is responsible for the identification of the human psychological traits that are evolved adaptations. While evolutionary biology, for example, is there to identify the ways in which our bodies have adapted through time, evolutionary psychology studies the psychological adaptations that people went through.

Those that study evolutionary psychology claim that our minds can and have gone through changes similar to those that our bodies went through. Evolutionary psychology is said to mainly affect our emotions, the way we behave with our closed ones and with ourselves.

So, let’s find out more about the benefits evolutionary psychology has on our day to day lives. You will be surprised with how many things we actually do just because of how we’ve evolved – and in quite a few cases, you would have had no idea that they are actually a product of evolution.

It Helps Us Love and Care for Our Children

If you are in charge of a naughty child, then you might wonder sometimes why you are still willing to do everything for him or her. Well, the past helped us greatly when it comes to this.

Before modern health care or any types of medical care that would be able to prevent most common diseases, as much as 50% of newborn babies didn’t make it past one year old. Moreover, 80% of the people living back then with no reach to proper medication, didn’t make it past eighteen years old. What’s the result?

Well, in time, we have learned to care more and more for our offspring. As we have few of them, we also put a lot of time in their caring and education. There is a small remnant of the past, back in our head, which tells us that, at any given time, we might be left without our children – and that just makes them more precious.

It Taught Us to Be Altruistic

By nature, people help one another. This trait was given to us back when we were just apes – that is if you believe in Darwin’s theory. Nevertheless, history proves to us that humans always try to help others of their kind, and not only.

Of course, not all people have evolved to be altruistic, but that’s just the influence of the many bad things that have happened so far. However, we see how important altruism is in our day to day life.

For example, people will sometimes do everything they can to appear altruistic – why? Because people, who are or just seem this way, have a better relationship with other people or with a group they’re a part of. No one likes a grumpy person who wouldn’t do anything to help his kin or donate for charity.

It Is Why We Still Love Nature

It is a fact well-known that our ancestors were not living in four-story buildings. Most of their time was spent outdoors, in nature. This has led to a human-nature relationship that is still available in some places in the world today. Nature would provide us with everything we needed for survival, while we were tending to and preserving it.

While nowadays man has a very hard time keeping this relationship balanced, we still feel the need to go a bit wild time to time and take a holiday far away from everything that’s modern.

This is why we still love going outdoors, even if our lifestyles are characterized by aspects of the modern age: staying inside all the time, working in a cubicle, being restrained by the cities’ grim look.

No matter how much we love our technology, gadgets, and living conditions, some of us would give it all away for a couple of months in the wilderness.

It Makes Us Want to Be Close to Our Kin

Until the Industrial Revolution, people usually lived in communities, of around 150 people, in which many people were related to one another. If you wanted to talk to your cousin, you would have just gone and pay a visit to her – right on the spot.

Many times, after we finish a call with one of our relatives, we feel like we would give anything just to be closer to one another – to be able to visit him or her whenever we want, without having to spend two or more days on the road, for example.

But, it is not about only wanting to be closer to our kin. It also makes us care more for those that are far away from us. We call them weekly, we ask them how they’re doing and how’s life going – sometimes with no purpose whatsoever; we just want to know they are healthy and good.

As you have noticed, evolutionary psychology does not have immediate effects on real life. However, just like evolution, it affects us in the long run, giving us traits and characteristics that help us be better people.

Victim Typologies


Sellin and Wolfgang’s typology is based on a five-group approach, which addresses situations that lead to crimes being committed instead of relations. Those classifications are known as primary, secondary, tertiary, mutual and no victimization. Every one of the groupings addresses a unique situation, which could lead to victimization and because each one of them differs, they are going to be discussed widely for clarity to avoid confusion.

Primary victimization refers to personal victimization; this implies that a person or group of individuals befall to be the first-hand victims of a planned crime. The crime committed can be because of revenge or personal grudge against one person or a selected group of individuals.

Secondary victimization occurs when a person is victimized unintentionally due to crime, for instance, murder. When a member of a family dies due to a terrible act, of course, the victim will not be around; however, his or her close and distant relatives will become victims due to the crime. The family members are not direct victims of the offense committed, but due to the member being killed, they are now secondary victims of the attack.

Tertiary victimization refers to a community as whole becoming victims. These crimes affect all the Society members and can be tackled with them together when they join hands. The government towards its citizens usually commits the majority of these crimes. For instance, when a politician rigs the election, every member of the society who voted and who did not vote will be victims since their rights to choose a leader they want will be interfered with during the election.

Mutual victimization occurs when a person who commits a crime is retaliated against and later on becomes a victim himself or herself. For instance, when a criminal commits a robbery injuring an employee who happens to be the daughter of a police officer, her father gets angry and decides to get even with the offender. He tries to murder the criminal; however, he inflicts severe wounds on him. The offender becomes a victim of mutual victimization in this scenario.

No victimization refers to a victimization, which is hard to explain. In most cases, crimes that are considered victimless fall under this classification. For instance, an over 18 student picking up a prostitute in a club, despite prostitution being known as a crime, the two people involved are also adults. Therefore, the crime becomes victimless.

According to the Time Magazine, after the November election whereby Donald J. Trump was elected president of the United States, cases of hate crimes have increased based on individuals race, gender, religion, and ethnicity (Reilly, 2016). It is believed that may have been caused by the proposals and rhetoric, which were used by the President-elect during campaigns like mass deportations of immigrants and barring Muslims from entering the country. This situation falls under Sellin and Wolfgang’s typology of primary victimization.

The Southern Poverty Law Center received more than 200 cases of hate crimes since election whereby many white supremacists in the country decided to celebrate Mr. Trump’s win; hence, minorities feeling their oats. Various people have marched in the streets to protest such behavior while several advocacy groups have called up the President-elect to condemn such actions, which is expected for him to act on the hate issues among Americans. For instance, in Maryland, when the vicar of Episcopal Church of Our Savior in Silver Spring, opened the church as every usual Sunday in the morning he was shocked to find that an advertising sign for Spanish sermons had been torn. The brick wall near the garden, which is used as a memorial site in Church, was written: “TRUMP NATION WHITES ONLY.” Other Churches in the region, which have Latinos as the majority, were also targeted thereby creating fear amongst the people in the area (Reilly, 2016).

In Pennsylvania, Black students who are a minority at the University of Pennsylvania were included in racist GroupMe message, whereby hate slurs were directed toward them (Reilly, 2016). The group was given a name of “Mudmen” and an anonymous person calling himself or herself “Daddy Trump” sent messages full of racial comments. One of the messages also indulged in the act of gender violence whereby it referenced Mr. Trump’s remarks regarding grabbing females by their genitals even without their consent while the other was calling for the lynching of black people. In Michigan, an unidentified man threatened a female student at the University of Michigan to remove her hijab or dare risk being set on fire with a lighter. Due to the reported rising hate crimes ever since September 9/11, the police in different states have promised to keep Americans safe by investigating various incidences and taking action on the criminals. The article illustrates cases of hate or bias crimes in America against black people, Muslims, and Women after the election thereby these offenses being classified under primary victimization.

Differences between victimology and criminology

Criminology is the scientific study of the nature, cause, extent, and control of criminal behavior in a person while victimology is defined as the study of the victim’s position or participation in the crimes. These definitions clearly highlight the major differences in the two scientific norms. Criminology directly examines criminal behavior while victimology studies the particular victims involved in the crimes. The article used in this paper discusses many hate or bias crimes directed at the minorities in America after the election by the white supremacists. The crimes discussed range from race, gender, and religion. The subject of the type of offenses in this paper falls under victimology since it studies victims of the crimes from the clerics, whose church was vandalized to Black students at the University of Michigan who were racially attacked through a GroupMe message. It also discusses how a female Muslim student was gender abused when an unidentified man threatened her to remove her hijab or risk being set on fire.


Through the study of various victim typologies by Sellin and Wolfgang and studying the difference between victimology and criminology, one can notice the demand for more research, which needs to be done on the field of criminal behavior. The needs to find out the reasons as to why some individuals still become victims in our society is wanting, especially in America whereby hate crimes were reducing in the previous years. During last year, hate crimes were lesser in the United States and it was rare for race, ethnic, or gender abuse to occur. The arise situation in America calls for more researchers to figure the cause of this hate crime so that we can build a better America for our children’s children in the future.


Breakup Needs to Be a Solution and Not an Emergency Evacuation Plan


When unhappiness enters your relationship, and nothing seems to work out for you too anymore, you should know that it is time to press the painful, yet efficient red button called breakup. It can be a harsh decision and it might imply lots and lots of nights when overthinking and bad thoughts will accompany you, but sometimes, this is the only solution you have unless you want the situation to get worse and to be forced later to press the button just because you can’t take it anymore. Each thing has to be done at the right time and this is why we provide you the reasons for which a breakup- what seems sometimes to be the end of the world- can be, in fact, a good thing for both you and your partner.

  1. A Relationship Is NOT a Battlefield

When your relationship starts to be dominated by fights, sharp accusations that function as strong weapons and hurt you both, you should know that it is time to stop right there and decide together what the best solution would be for both of you. Sometimes, people are so different that they cannot simply be managed and solved, and this is why both partners sitting at a table and talking calmly about your future together or apart is one of the best things you should do, as your happiness and his/hers are things that matter the most.

If after long talks and fights you still haven’t managed to find a solution that can keep you together, the breakup is the only choice left: a painful decision that will leave you both lost for some time, but that will give you the strength to continue with your goals, dreams, and desires. In time, the situation could have altered even more, leaving you both even more hurt, with awful memories that will foreshadow the good ones.

  1. Postponing the Decision Will Not Make Things Better

You might still believe that things can work properly even after a huge period in which nothing seems to go well. Once a relationship starts to gather wounds, it is very difficult to heal it and usually, it requires both partners and a lot of motivation and work. If things do not seem to go in this direction, postponing the separation will only be more and more hurtful and in the end, you will be forced to get out of this because you do not have another choice left.

Two consenting adults making the right decision that will still leave them on good terms and with good memories is the best way to end an unhealthy relationship.

  1. Friends Instead of Enemies

We all know you can’t be friends with your ex, but sometimes, fights and tensioned situations only bring the worst out of you and the person next to you. You will only reach that point in which you will not recognize yourself and the other- the most painful and unpleasant situation you could experience. You’ll gather so much disappointment, that you will only want to run away from everything- an unhealthy way of ending what used to be once a beautiful period of your life.

When things do not seem to have a silver lining, a breakup can be a solution. You and your partner should definitely avoid becoming enemies, fighting over everything and reach that point when your relationship is a prison for both of you. With patience, common sense and care about yourself and your partner, an inevitable breakup doesn’t have to be a desperate decision that will leave you only with sorrows and regrets.

Emotion and Motivation

Why is it easier for us to walk out to our car and drive across the town, just to go and visit a family member or a friend, but yet find it difficult, to walk across our house and place our clothes on the hamper, but rather drop them on the floor? Why do we have to send gifts, chocolates, flowers, to our friends and loved ones? The answer to this question shows how our emotions and motivations are strongly connected. On one hand, Gorman defined emotions as “a unique state of consciousness which may bring happiness, sadness, anger, surprise, disgust or fear; as differentiated from cognitive and volitional states of consciousness.”


Emotions are the main controllers of the motivation in a person’s life. By understanding how people may feel in particular conditions can inform you on their reasons for particular actions. Take for example taking a walk to go see a friend, when you return, you’d rather drop your clothes on the clothes than taking them to the hamper. Why is this so? It is because we have an emotion, a feeling to go visit the friend or family and so we are motivated enough to drive across town for a visit, to fulfill the desire. Walking across our home just to put our dresses in a laundry basket may be done with different emotions, thus our actions will also be different. Going across a room to put our dresses in a hamper is a task towards which we may not have a strong desire, with the absence of motivation for it, we may simply just drop them on the floor. If on the contrary, there was a desire for those clothes to be washed immediately, so we can wear them again as soon as possible, then this desire will develop the necessary motivation in us, to walk across the room, to the laundry basket. Just we are all different, different people look at the same event, in different manners. Events are external circumstances, and they affect an individual’s emotional stat. Crying or smiling are responses to stimuli. Stimuli may occur as responses to internal or external factors, thinking something funny or thinking something sad. It is generally known that a person who smiles is happy, it is however unknown if the smile is just a reaction or if it is the smile that causes the happiness. By understanding emotional theories and their functioning in our subconscious, it helps us in managing our lives as well as understanding others. The very core of humanity, is hidden in our multifaceted personalities that result from our upbringing, experiences, genetics etc.  Each individual is unique and therefore each of our emotions to each situation are unique as well. Shachter-Singer theory considers how emotions and arousal affect performance and human motivation. From this theory, we learn that various events first cause physiological arousal, then emotions. For example, someone walking down a dark sidewalk at midnight. Upon hearing footsteps, the person’s heart will start racing, breathing will increase faster, fearing danger. This first part is the arousal part, then follows the emotion which is fear, because this behavior is the sense of danger.


Motivation on another hand, can be defined as “the reason(s) that someone may have for behaving in a certain way”. In many, if not most cases, the reason is emotion. Even though the biggest influence of motivation is emotion, another major influence is also having a goal. Take for example, a friend who will like to shed some weight, and this friend sets a goal of watching what they eat and do more exercises. The motivation that this friend will have are the goals that your friend had set. It is true that some people argue that the goals are also linked to emotions since those goals were made from a particular desire, and desire is none other but an emotion. According to Gorman, there are four theories of motivation. Let us take a close look at them.


Motivation theories

The first theory we’ll look at is the instinct theory. This theory stipulates that people are motivated and react or behave in a particular manner simple because they were programmed evolutionarily, to behave in that way. An example can be seen in animals, their seasonal migration. Although they have never really learn to do this, it is as a result of an inborn pattern of behavior. Another theory is the incentive theory. According to his theory, a person does something for external rewards. An example is an individual who goes to work every day so that at the end of the day He/She will be paid. The drive theory which is the third theory of motivation, stipulates that people perform different actions with the aim of reducing the tension or the stress, caused by unsatisfied needs. For example, someone will be motivated to eat something, to reduce the feeling of hunger. The arousal theory states instead, that people take different courses of actions to either increase or decrease their levels of arousal, so to maintain our arousal level at an optimum state. When someone feels that his/her levels of arousal is low, he/she may go out for a run or watch a movie, to increase arousal. With high arousal energies, such a person will look for ways to reduce it, by meditating or just sitting down quietly. The last theory of motivation we will look at is the humanistic theory. With a closer look, it is clear then, that motivation and emotion are strongly interlinked.


The strong relation that exists between motivation and emotion, is very obvious. The strongest aspect of a person’s motivation is always tied up with emotions, although this is a truth, the various theories of motivation seem more and more appealing to some people.