Author: Ashley

How to Make a Great LinkedIn Profile ( 18 Best Tips)

how to create a linkedin profile - job description

How to Make a Great LinkedIn Profile (+18 Best Tips)

Do you have a LinkedIn profile? Congratulations, now you’re one of the 750+ million users competing for the attention of recruiters, investors, and entrepreneurs scouting for talent in the social platform.

Your profile, contrary to what many users think, isn’t the online equivalent of a resume. Although it looks like it, it’s so much more than that. Your LinkedIn profile gives you the opportunity to tell your story, ambition, and personal brand sans the limitations of a typical resume. It also serves as your business card, a way for other users to evaluate if you’re a worthy addition to their professional network.

This tutorial will show you how to set up LinkedIn, so you can get more views and build a stronger network for your career or business. Plus, we’ll share 18 LinkedIn profile tips to help you make the best LinkedIn profile.

18 LinkedIn Profile Tips

1. Use the First Person

Write like you’re talking to a friend, but keep it professional. Let your personality shine. There’s no need for highfalutin words, although proper grammar and spelling are still expected.

Show people what makes you passionate about your work or business, and feel free to share a bit of what you do when you’re not at work. Again, you’re not writing a resume. You’re writing a profile on a professional social network, the key words being professional and social.

2. Pick a Good Profile Picture

Your profile picture will affect people’s first impression of you, so choose wisely. If you can, invest in a professional headshot for your profile. Don’t be afraid to pick a creative picture if that’s appropriate for your line of work. Just make sure it’s recent and a good close-up because a full-body shot is impossible to see on a thumbnail size image.

3. Don’t Limit Your Headline to Your Job Title

The LinkedIn headline is the first thing other users will read on your profile because it’s just below your name. It’s auto-filled with your current job title by default, but you can change it to whatever you want.

A headline is supposed to catch a reader’s attention. Your job title, however impressive, won’t cut it. Remember, LinkedIn has 750+ million users, so there’s a good chance there are thousands of professionals with the same job title as you.

4. Use the Summary to Tell Your Story

The summary section of your LinkedIn profile isn’t the same as the executive or professional summary in a resume. In a resume, the summary is usually reserved for the candidate’s best accomplishments.

In LinkedIn, you’re not limited to a one-line accomplishment. There’s enough space to tell the story beyond those accomplishments to give readers context of your work, and how it impacts the people around you. You can also write a short narrative about your career’s progression, or share the story of how your business came to be.

While storytelling is definitely acceptable, LinkedIn users won’t read a novel. Limit your summary to three to five short paragraphs with a bulleted section for users who don’t want to read the whole text.

5. Add a Background Photo

Not many users know, but you can now upload a background or cover photo on your LinkedIn profile. It’s similar to what you see on Twitter and Facebook, except users are expecting to see professional or work-related background pictures, not selfies.

Granted, not everyone will have pictures like those mentioned above. If that’s the case, try a picture of yourself while at work. This works great for jobs where you’re not always in front of a computer, and what you’re doing is easily understood in a photo, such as architects, chefs, photographers, engineers, and anyone doing field work.

6. Connect Your Other Accounts and Websites

You’re also allowed to link up to three websites to your profile. Each URL can be labeled as your personal website, company website, blog, portfolio, or RSS Feed. While those descriptions are okay, using the “other” option as your label gives you the freedom to use a creative or keyword-rich label for your website.

For instance, instead of plain old “Portfolio,” you can label your website as “Graphic Design Portfolio.” If your website URL is different from your brand name, you can use this feature to list the brand name beside the URL.

7. Use Visual Media

With its visual media features, users can show proof of their work by uploading videos, articles, presentations, or PDF files right beside every job entry. Attaching visual media to your LinkedIn profile is a great way for creatives to showcase their work, and for entrepreneurs to prove the value of their products and services through PDF case studies or video demonstrations.

8. Highlight Accomplishments in the Experience Section

If you’re having trouble choosing which accomplishments to include, pick the three most impressive, relevant, or unique to your role. Write the bullet points in the Challenge-Action-Results (CAR) format or the Situation-Tasks-Action-Results (STAR) format.

Since there are no space constraints on LinkedIn, use the extra space to write a short overview of your job. Explain the specifics of your job, such as the industry you serve, the budget you handle, or the number of people you manage to give other users some context about your experience.

9. List All Relevant Skills to Get “Endorsements”

Go to “View Your Profile” then scroll down until you see the section on “Featured Skills and Endorsements.” If you don’t have any skills listed yet, just type your skills and LinkedIn will suggest related skills for you.

You can receive endorsements from other members for various skills.

Why do you need a good LinkedIn profile?

LinkedIn is the social media network for professionals. Recruiters go there to find potential candidates; employers are actively promoting their brands and it is by far the best social media platform for a job seeker.

Recruiters and hiring managers will source on a variety of platforms and social media and your activity on Facebook and Twitter will certainly carry some weight, but LinkedIn is where the job search social brand should live for any corporate job seeker.

It is true that historically manual professions such as plumbers or less senior roles such as telemarketers have not been so visible on LinkedIn, but today if you are a tradesman looking to increase your brand or an early career professional looking for education, LinkedIn is a treasure trove of opportunity for everyone.

One of the biggest mistakes for any beginner LinkedIn member is to create a minimal LinkedIn profile. The platform offers fantastic opportunities for connecting with others who could help you along your career journey, so make the very most of everything that is on offer. Be confident and let your experience shine.

How to Create a Powerful LinkedIn Profile: 10 Tips

When you hit that profile button and contemplate the messages that your LinkedIn profile is sending out to potential new employers or freelancing clients, are you happy with what you read?

1. Your LinkedIn profile photo and profile header image

Considering the use of headshots in resumes has been phased out in many countries (notably in the United States and Canada), the importance of a professional photo is often overlooked by job seekers.

Not everyone bothers creating a profile picture on a clean white background, and even fewer people care enough to order professional photos by a photographer. The latter may seem needlessly expensive, until you think about the investment value. In the long run, high quality “headshots” pay for themselves many times over in positive image gains.

Considering LinkedIn is a social network, your profile picture should work to your advantage. We’ll analyze that aspect in more detail later, but for now, make sure to choose and/or create your image carefully.

If you’re already using’s resume builder, we have a nifty feature that can turn any photo into a professional one: the photo background change feature . You can easily take any photo that turned out well and switch out the background with the press of one button. There’s a good variety of backgrounds to choose from: abstract, office space, flat color and even natural backdrops for more exotic professions.

2. The LinkedIn headline is your elevator pitch

The LinkedIn headline is a very important element of the LinkedIn profile page, as it sets the tone for your entire LinkedIn account. It’s the first thing seen by prospective employers and recruiters after your profile photo.

The best LinkedIn profiles make the headline work for them, rather than just display their main job title. In a world where “standard” job descriptions mean less and less with each passing year, purposefully crafting a professional brand and a “custom title” or job description makes a lot of sense.

Your goal is to outline more than a generic job title for your current position — for instance, “Kate Wills, Accountant” or “Jim Gordon, Engineer” — and to make the recruiters who visit your page actually remember you among the crowd of candidates.

3. Your LinkedIn profile “about” summary section

In terms of vitally important (yet difficult to tackle) sections, the LinkedIn “about” section is a cornerstone of your LinkedIn profile. Similar to the profile in a traditional resume (sometimes called the summary or personal statement ), this offers the very best highlights of your candidature.

It should give a brief but vibrant glimpse into how you’ve grown as a professional over the years. Highlight your proudest achievements in the LinkedIn profile and emphasize your most unique or valuable skills.

The summary section on has many of the same characteristics as its counterpart in a traditional resume. You can check out our advice on building a fantastic summary in our comprehensive resume writing guide , or our summary blog, since most of the same principles apply. The main difference is you’re limited by 2,000 characters rather than 100 to 200 words.

The trick is to strike a balance between an engaging narrative and professional credentials. Bet too creative and you’ll come off as not taking your job seriously. Focus only on professional lingo, and even industry experts will get bored quickly and move on.

Keep in mind also that many recruiters and hiring managers aren’t as knowledgeable in technical fields as you might be if you’re an industry veteran. Be careful not to turn your LinkedIn profile summary into a jumble of cryptic abbreviations.

Space is precious here, and first impressions even more so. Make these 2,000 characters count. Make them capture the recruiter’s or prospective employer’s imagination, as much as they impress with career milestones.

It is important to note that only the first three lines of the LinkedIn “about” section will be visible initially, so make the beginning of your story as interesting as possible. The reader makes a conscious choice to click on the “see more” button, so choose your words carefully in the opening sentences.

How to Build an Impressive LinkedIn Profile - Characters counts LinkedIn

How to Build an Impressive LinkedIn Profile – Characters counts LinkedIn

4. Featured content adds depth to your story

The main benefit of LinkedIn is that it allows members to grow their professional networks, share their thoughts with others and learn from each other. Social update posts, long form blog content and video posts all form part of the LinkedIn professional tapestry.

Step 6: Licenses and Certifications

When you create your LinkedIn profile, do not forget to include your licenses and certifications if you have any. Obviously, they can be different depending on your field or industry.

licenses and certifications linkedin

You can visit the link that I’ve provided if you want to learn how to get certified for free in Marketing or Sales by these companies. Obviously, these certifications do not substitute a degree, but they are a great way to boost your CV.

When completing this section, you can also provide details such as the expiration of the course (if any), an URL to the certificate, and a valid credential. It is not obligatory, however.

Step 7: Accomplishments

I have included the next couple of sections within the same step because their goal is practically the same. To highlight your skills in a more practical way, and give other people the opportunity to endorse your expertise.

The purpose of this section is to write down your key skills and let others endorse you. The reason why is because everyone can make up skills that they don’t have. However, if you have coworkers or ex classmates that have worked with you, they can go to your profile and confirm that you actually possess these skills.

Of course, do not go overboard with the skills. Select between 10-15 things that you are really good at, and focus on getting endorsed for them. You don’t want your expertise to get diluted because you’ve listed 100 irrelevant skills.


Not Enough Time? Here Are 15 Easy Ways How to Find More Time

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Not Enough Time? Here Are 15 Easy Ways How to Find More Time

find more time

I know you have hundreds of things you wish you could do with your life, but you just can’t find the time, right? You want to read a book, learn to cook, watch a drama series, exercise, do yoga, walk your dog, build a business, and still be able to spend quality time with your family. But you just don’t have enough time for all these.

So you have to understand that it is not that you don’t have enough time, instead, it is because you don’t really know how to manage yourself and your time. After all, every one of us was given the same amount of time each day.

On the other hand, there are also people who allowed the constant demands of their lives to pressure them. They allow life to happen to them rather than take control of time and live the life they wanted.

Your mission is to transform your life from the second group to the first. You want to reclaim your time and your life. You want to make good use of your time and live to the fullest.

More importantly, you want to find more time and create a life that you love living. So here are 15 little hacks how you can find more time in your day to build the lifestyle that you desire.

Cut back time spent on unnecessary activities

First, go through your work tasks and get rid of the tasks that don’t contribute to the results you want. Next, go through your leisure time and cut back on the time that isn’t really enjoyable. Here are some recommendations:

Television – I don’t really watch TV anymore. I do watch movies, but I only watch them in the cinema. If you can’t get rid of it completely, choose to cut it down to only watch the shows that you truly enjoy.

Social media – Do you really need to check updates and see what others are talking about once every hour? No, you don’t. Unless you need to work on social media, spend less time on it and invest your time elsewhere.

Games – Mobile games have made things easier for us, but the downside is that we tend to spend more time on them. You can enjoy playing games, but make sure you don’t overspend your time on them.

Plan Your Day

Person getting ready to write in a weekly planner

Planning your day prevents wasting time figuring out what you need to do next, even if most of your days look pretty much the same. Planning is more than simply listing tasks. As you plan your day:

  • Create a clear to-do list. Instead of saying “write,” indicate what you’re writing.
  • Start with the end in mind. ​We don’t mean the ultimate end goal, but the result you want from the task. For example, if you’re writing a book, while your ultimate goal is a completed book, your to-do list task might be “Complete draft of chapter one.”
  • Block out time. Blocking out time helps you focus on the task at hand. It also creates a boundary, so you don’t take too much time on an activity. For example, checking email or social media can quickly waste an hour or more.
  • Overestimate the time needed to complete your task. Often we get into trouble getting through the to-do list because we run out of time. Remember, things rarely go as planned, so tack on extra time for each to-do, and adjust your list and schedule so as not to overstuff your time.
  • Use a timer. To help keep you working within your blocks, use a timer to let you know when your time is up. If needed, you can continue on that task, but you’ll need to readjust your other blocks to accommodate it.
  • Don’t multitask. The idea of doing tasks simultaneously is a myth unless it’s walking and chewing gum. You can’t focus on more than one task at a time, and you lose time adjusting and refocusing on a new task as you go back and forth. You spend less time when focused on one task, and then switching to a new task when the first is complete.
  • Add fun to your day. Breaks are important, but so is fun. If you schedule your day full of work and no leisure time, you’ll burn out. So schedule a block of fun and/or relaxation. Read for leisure. Stretch. Watch TV (just don’t binge watch). Get a massage. Do whatever you enjoy and will refuel your energy tanks.

Start Your Day Earlier

Woman reaching for alarm clock

The 5 AM Miracle by Jeff Sanders and The Miracle Morning by Hal Elrod are two books that advocate getting up at 5 a.m. If you’re not a morning person, the idea of getting up at 5 a.m. can make you cringe. Nevertheless, getting up earlier than usual can help you get more done. You might even find yourself finishing earlier while doing more. There’s something about getting up earlier that helps you get more done in less time. If you can’t immediately start getting up at 5 a.m., set your alarm in earlier increments. Further, you don’t have get up at 5 a.m. The goal is to get up earlier than usual. So if you usually get up at 10 am, earlier might be 7 or 8 a.m.


Business Writing – Definition, Principles,Types and Tips

writing skills

Types of business writing

A “genre” is a socially agreed upon and recognized form of communication that a group of people has developed over time to communicate more effectively and efficiently with one another. There are many communication genres, including speech genres and genres of writing. A telephone conversation would be an example of a speech genre. Telephone conversations usually include generic beginnnings, modes of development, and endings. An email message would be an example of a genre of writing. Classroom genres of writing include exams, essays, and notes, for example. In businesses, written communication takes several different forms, including email messages, memos, resumes, letters, proposals, reports, advertisements, contracts, etc.

Individuals, typically, do not invent genres of writing. Instead, as they become members of certain groups they learn the habits and conventions that the group has developed over time to communicate with one another. These habits precede and survive any individual�s membership in the group. If you want to become a physician, you need to learn how to write a medical chart. If you want to become a lawyer, you need to learn how to write a legal brief. If you want to become Congressional representative, you need to learn how to write a law. Knowing the recognizable genres of writing used by members of your profession becomes of sign of your membership in that organization and enables you to write and read more effectively and efficiently. This course in business writing aims to teach you the genres of writing that will enable you to become a member of a business or a workplace. Typically, managers claim they spend between one-fourth and one-half of their time at work writing, reading, or editing the documents others write within the organization.

The term, “format,” refers to the spatial or visual design of a document. When you picture the visual design of a business letter � with the address of the receiver, the address of the sender, the date, salutation, message, and closing � arranged conventionally upon the page, you are picturing the format of a business letter. A format can easily be reproduced as a template, yet provides little or no assistance to writers for generating the content of their documents.

The term, “structure,” refers to the set of topics that readers of a particular genre of writing expect to find included. When you imagine an outline or a table of contents for a document, you are imagining a structure. Structures can help writers generate and organize the content of their documents but are less useful as templates for arranging information visually on a page. This guide uses the term, “superstructure,” to describe not only the set of topics typically including in a specific genre of writing, (a proposal for example) but also to suggest a logical order for arranging those topics.

It is important for business writers to remember this distinction between the format and the structure of a particular genre of writing, because the set of topics typically included in one kind of document may be formatted according to the conventions of another kind of document. In other words, the recognizable superstructure of a proposal can be formatted in several different ways � as an internal memorandum, a letter, or a short report, for example. Business writers make decisions about the format and structure of their documents according to their purposes for writing and the needs/expectations of their readers.

When you want to become a member of an organization, pay close attention to the genres of writing members of that organization typically produce, including their formats and structures. The best advice to follow when you need to write an unfamiliar document, is to collect similar documents produced by others in the organization. Observe these documents to determine what they have in common, how they differ, and most importantly, why they differ when they do.

You will find many templates readily available to you on the word processing software you use. Microsoft Word �97, for example, provides templates for the following kinds of business documents:

To access these templates in Microsoft Word, simply click on “File,” choose “new,” read the tabs on the file folders that appear, and click on the one that includes the template you want to use.

Every occasion for writing, every rhetorical situation or reason for writing, differs. Even though members of organizations share expectations about the genres of writing they write and read, no two documents are ever identical. The templates available through a particular software program reflect the preferences of the company that designed the software and may or may not meet the needs of readers within other organizations. When you consult models or templates to help you write documents within an organization, you will invariably need to alter those models or templates to meet your purpose for writing and the expectations of your readers. Also, models and templates tend to be more useful to help you format documents. The structure � the set of topics you include in any particular communication � will vary greatly depending upon your circumstances. This explains why software companies can more easily supply templates for memos and letters than they can for longer, more complex proposals and reports.

What is Business Writing?

Definition: Business writing is defined as a purposeful piece of writing used in business communication for conveying relevant information and details in an accurate, concise, clear, and effective manner to accomplish some business or operational goals. In general, four such types of writing – instructional, persuasive, informational, and transactional- are used.

For making business writing effective, the important skills that should be incorporated are clarity of thought, correct grammar and sentence structure, simple and concise language. As a highly pragmatic process, it enables the readers to know or perform an action. Such form of writing might flow up, down, internally, externally, or laterally depending upon where the target audiences are.

10 tips for improving your skills in each type of business writing

  1. Create a summary of the document – this might be included at the start of the final document, or it might just be a useful guide for you as the writer
  2. Use short sentences that are easy to read
  3. Avoid using difficult words or complex phrases
  4. Use headings and subheadings to help guide your reader
  5. Avoid long blocks of uninterrupted text – extra subheadings can break up those acres of text into smaller, more manageable chunks
  6. Write in the active voice rather than passive
  7. Keep your writing simple, direct and on-topic
  8. Keep your tone consistent throughout – if the document is fun and friendly, don’t suddenly turn serious and somber, or vice versa
  9. Consider using visuals if appropriate – bulleted lists, graphs, tables and even photos can effectively convey information or create the right feeling
  10. Proofread, proofread, proofread. Even minor mistakes can reflect poorly on your professional image and reputation

Best wishes!

If you enjoyed this article and are in the process of writing a nonfiction book, be sure to check out my free nonfiction success guide, drawn from years of experience editing books for bestselling authors (including a New York Times bestseller) and ghostwriting for CEOs and politicians. Simply click here to get instant access.

Leave me a comment below if you have any questions or a specific need that I can help you address – I operate an author services firm that specializes in helping entrepreneurs, professionals and business owners who want to publish books as a calling card for prospects, to establish their status as an expert or to generate additional leads for their businesses.

Here are some related posts I highly recommend:

Bennett R. Coles

Bennett R. Coles is an award-winning author of six books published through Harper Collins (New York) and Titan Publishing Group (London). He is also the publisher at Promontory Press, editor for multiple bestselling authors (including a NY Times bestseller), ghostwriter for CEOs and politicians and the founder of Cascadia Author Services, a boutique full-service firm that specializes in premium author services specifically designed for busy professionals. Our end-to-end services include writer coaching, ghostwriting, editing, proofing, cover design, book layout, eBook production, marketing, printing and distribution.


How to come up with compelling arguments for your clients in the court?

Legal Research and Writing Program

Each summer, UVA Law students show up at a wide variety of offices ready to spend a few months learning on the job. They work at firms and government offices, in judges’ chambers and in public defender offices. And the vast majority of them are asked to do one thing: Write.

A summer internship is a great opportunity to learn how to work as an attorney. The ideal internship would involve interesting, substantive work. The goal is for students’ supervisors to realize early on that UVA Law students are not only intelligent and likeable, but also immediately useful. Once that realization kicks in, they invite the student to do more than just background research. The summer job becomes a better, more enriching experience.

Writing is often the key that opens the door. The Law School’s Legal Research and Writing Program prepares students to produce professional work that says “lawyer,” not “intern.” Through a series of increasingly difficult writing assignments, students learn how to organize legal analysis and present a polished piece of writing.

In the fall, students research and write neutral memoranda evaluating a fictional client’s legal problem. In the spring, students write an appellate brief and argue their case before a three-judge panel. The assignments expose students to an array of emerging and challenging areas of the law. Recent topics have included the reach of a district court’s equitable powers under the RICO Act, the impacts of the Endangered Species Act on alternative energy projects, and the availability of the innocent owner defense in a federal civil forfeiture action.

In recognition of the importance of UVA’s Legal Research and Writing program, Norton Rose Fulbright has for many years sponsored a prize for the best memos written in each of the first-year class sections. Stephen McNabb, partner-in-charge of the Washington, D.C. office, explains, “The most important service a law school can provide to future employers is to prepare its students to research and write effectively. We have long been impressed with the commitment of the Law School and its professors to legal research and writing.”

The course prepares students to hit the ground running. Summer experiences build to postgraduation job offers and long-term career options. In a competitive job market, proving value is key. A UVA Law graduate working at a Richmond law firm put it simply: If a summer intern or new associate turns in a weak piece of writing, he doesn’t give that person any more work.

Because of their communications skills, UVA students often find themselves invited into the most interesting work. Ralph “Chet” Otis ’17 recently interned for a district court judge and was asked, along with interns from several other top law schools, to write bench memos. They were given two weeks to complete their memos. Otis needed only one week to complete his first one. He then experienced the thrill of having his words appear in the judge’s opinion. He credits UVA’s Legal Research and Writing Program for giving him the tools to turn out a solid work product so quickly. Indeed, Otis estimates he wrote 13-14 bench memos over the course of his internship.

In addition to instruction and feedback from the Legal Research and Writing faculty, students receive detailed comments on multiple drafts from student teaching assistants. UVA’s tradition of student collegiality is reflected in the Legal Writing Fellows Program, which pairs up each new student with a 2L or 3L teaching assistant. Connor Crews ’16 found great value in the relationship. “The program provided me with access to an experienced student colleague who analyzed my work in a low-pressure environment and taught me that accepting criticism is critical to developing as an attorney.” Crews went on to serve as a Legal Writing Fellow himself, helping the next class learn to write with logical rigor and clarity.

The program also helps students learn how to talk about their analysis. The spring oral arguments program is a highlight for both students and alumni. More than 100 alumni return to act as judges for what is, for many of our students, a first attempt at oral advocacy. The judges’ questions and feedback help students build confidence in their oral advocacy skills. That skill set helps in a variety of settings.

Gretchen Nygaard ’11 started her career at a prestigious law firm in Washington, D.C. “During one of my first annual reviews, many of my reviewing partners commented that not only did I write clearly, but I effectively communicated about my written work product. The UVA program taught me both to write and to speak with clarity about my research and writing.” She is now working at the Department of Justice.


In order to make a compelling and persuasive argument in the court, it is essential to know the subject matter concerned in the case that you have taken on the behalf of your client. This means that you need to know all the ins and outs of the case in order to overthrow your opponent in the court. You need to go through the law governing the case profoundly. Knowing that particular law extensively will not only help you in coming up with persuasive arguments, but it will also help you in figuring out the arguments which the other side might make. In furtherance of this, it would also help you in making counter-arguments. If you’re not thorough with the law or the subject matter of that case, the opposite side will definitely find the weaknesses in your argument which can end up in your losing the case.

  1. The first and the foremost step to make an argument is to provide that argument with a persuasive legal backing and make the best use of authorities that you’ve referred to in the case. While preparing the sheet of arguments that you’re going to present in front of the judge(s) you need to make use of certain case laws and authorities that support your case. For making an argument sound more persuasive, you need to cite those authorities in the argument that are most relevant to your case.
  2. Citing authorities just for the sake of it will not leave a good impression on the judge and he/she will not be able to understand your issue, as well as the analogy that you’ve drawn between the issue and the authority.
  3. Moreover, the arguments need not be very bulky. You need to present them in a very brief manner so that it is not taxing for the judge(s) to listen to them.
  4. You could put in various practical examples which would help in furthering the case of your client.
  5. Think logically and draw analogies between the subject matter and the law. Your arguments should be logical and, in a sequence, to make them more compelling.


Technology innovation

Integration of the single modalities in hybrid equipment (PET/CT, PET/MR) that allow the acquisition of a comprehensive set of information, leading to extremely accurate diagnostic examinations and considerable advantages related to patient’s comfort, whom will likely perceive both examinations as one shot.

Botsourcing and Outsourcing: Robot, British, Chinese, and German Workers Are for Thinking—Not Feeling—Jobs

Technological innovations have produced robots capable of jobs that, until recently, only humans could perform. The present research explores the psychology of "botsourcing"—the replacement of human jobs by robots—while examining how understanding botsourcing can inform the psychology of outsourcing—the replacement of jobs in one country by humans from other countries. We test four related hypotheses across six experiments: (1) Given people’s lay theories about the capacities for cognition and emotion for robots and humans, workers will express more discomfort with botsourcing when they consider losing jobs that require emotion versus cognition; (2) people will express more comfort with botsourcing when jobs are framed as requiring cognition versus emotion; (3) people will express more comfort with botsourcing for jobs that do require emotion if robots appear to convey more emotion; and (4) people prefer to outsource cognition-oriented versus emotion-oriented jobs to other humans who are perceived as more versus less robotic. These results have theoretical implications for understanding social cognition about both humans and nonhumans and practical implications for the increasingly botsourced and outsourced economy.

Technological innovations have produced robots capable of jobs that, until recently, only humans could perform. The present research explores the psychology of "botsourcing"—the replacement of human jobs by robots—while examining how understanding botsourcing can inform the psychology of outsourcing—the replacement of jobs in one country by humans.

Ecology: Organizations

3.2 Technological Processes

Technological innovation influences organizational populations profoundly by disrupting markets, changing the relative importance of resources, challenging organizational learning capabilities, and altering the basis of competition (see Technology and Organization ). Supporting Schumpeter’s characterization of technological innovation as a process of creative destruction, research supports the idea that technologies evolve over time through cycles of long periods of incremental change, which enhance and institutionalize an existing technology, punctuated by technological discontinuities in which new, radically superior technologies displace old, inferior ones, making possible order-of-magnitude or more improvements in organizational performance (Tushman and Anderson 1986 ).

The new technology can either be competence-enhancing, building on existing knowhow and reinforcing incumbents’ positions, or competence-destroying, rendering existing knowhow obsolete and making it possible for newcomers to become technologically superior competitors. The technological ferment spawned by the discontinuity ends with the emergence of a dominant design, a single architecture that establishes dominance in a product class (Anderson and Tushman 1990 ), and technological advance returns to incremental improvements on the dominant technology. Although the universality of this technology cycle is debated, it has proved illuminating in a wide variety of industries.

Technological innovation creates opportunities for entrepreneurs to found new organizations and establish competitive positions as incumbents’ sources of advantage decay. Technological innovation also creates uncertainty and risk for incumbents because its outcomes can be only imperfectly anticipated. An innovation’s impact may not be known until it is too late for incumbents using older knowhow to compete successfully with new competitors; gambling too early on a given innovation may jeopardize an incumbent’s survival if that technology turns out not to become dominant. Thus, underlying technologies and technological innovation may influence organizational populations’ competitive dynamics and evolution profoundly. Ecological research relating technology cycles to population dynamics, although limited in scope, yields compelling support for this assertion (Baum 1996 ). Although past research typically treats technological change as exogenous, studying how ecological processes shape technological change can deepen our understanding of technology cycles by examining the dynamics of organizational support for new technologies.

Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer

Historical Perspective and Technological Advances

Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen is generally credited with the first description of what he called “x-rays” when in 1896 he presented a lecture entitled “Concerning a New Kind of Ray.” His work led to the rapid emergence of the study of diagnostic radiology and earned him the first Nobel Prize in Physics in 1901. Shortly thereafter, radiation was also being utilized to treat a variety of skin diseases, including cancer ( n.a., 1983 ). However, it took several more decades and the discovery of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) before it was understood that the primary mechanism for the effect of radiographs on tissues was via ionization and production of DNA damage, either directly or via free radical production.

The first documented radiotherapeutic approach to treatment of prostate cancer was by Pasteau and Degrais in 1911, who described using an intraurethral radium source, with modifications of this approach later utilized by Young and Fronz in 1917.

There are reports of external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) using kilovoltage radiation for the treatment of prostate cancer between 1930 and 1955 ( Attwater, 1930 ; Hultberg, 1946 ). However, a problem inherent to kilovoltage radiation is a high deposition of dose at the skin, limiting the ability to deliver tumoricidal doses of radiation to the prostate because of unacceptable skin and normal tissue toxicity. Further technical advances would be required before RT could achieve greater efficacy and safety. Several relevant considerations exist when delivering therapeutic radiation, particularly in a relatively deep-seated internal organ such as the prostate:

High-Energy Linear Accelerators

5. Analytics and Visualization

Data availability has exploded — modern corporations have access to vast amounts of complex data, both internal and from the public domain. The breadth and depth of data available require new ways to summarize, visualize, and present data. Novel ways to experience data and insights could involve intelligent interactive synopsis and ‘data navigation’ systems, VR and AR experiences, voice-driven insights discovery, and ‘personalized data exploration’ scenarios. I do believe that there are great new ways to visually browse and understand data, discover and explore hidden structures, trends, and patterns.

Blockchain is one of the most disruptive technologies out there. Its distributed, decentralized, and immutable properties make it the ideal way to store and track data across numerous domains and use cases.

I see significant new applications and novel scenarios beyond crypto-currencies and fin-tech. Startups are already working on novel concepts that make sense to leverage blockchain. In the years to come, some of these will disrupt social, government, and even political aspects of our world — for example here is an idea on how to leverage blockchain and related technologies like IPFS to set the basis for solving the Fake News problem.

7. Robotics

Robots are already here, in one form or another. Regardless of the particular class — humanoids, nano-robots, military, industrial, and so on — the progress is impressive. On one hand, it is the advances in terms of hardware, sensors, and operating software; on the other hand, it is the progress of Artificial Intelligence that makes it possible to integrate cognitive services and dramatically increase Robot’s capabilities for real-time decision making.

In the near future, we will start to meet Robots with proactive behaviors, advanced context understanding, able to adapt to human sentiment, enforce ‘personalities’ and communication styles.

Technology innovation can take many forms — for instance, novel software implementing new algorithms and data processing models; or new hardware components (sensors, processors, components); or improved user interfaces offering seamless experiences; it can also happen at a higher level, in the form of new processes, business models, monetization engines, and so on.

And this is the real opportunity for the developers out there — to combine all the latest technologies and advances and build unique user experiences, empowering their end-users; to leverage reusable APIs and the capabilities of cloud computing, the rich content available in the public domain, the knowledge, the ideas, and even the global connected communities to make an impact by solving major problems in novel ways.

Technology innovation

South Korean startup Ghost Kitchen provides individual kitchen spaces to quickly start delivery businesses. At present, the startup owns 143 kitchens with adequate hygiene management and workflow from material storage to cooking, packaging, and delivery. Also, Ghost Kitchen enables data-driven planning services through a shared data collection from the entire individual kitchens. In effect, the startup minimizes expenses for contracts and interiors by directly offering standalone kitchens for restaurants and other food delivery entrepreneurs.

Wisedoc: Its time to evolve from using ancient word processing softwares & start adopting Wisedoc Akash Kannegulla, Founder & CEO, Wisedoc


Technological innovation has been a leading agent of social change, worldwide, since the late 1700s, serving as the conduit into society of developments in science and technology. As such, it has been at the center of ethical issues ranging from the morality and justice of the early Industrial Revolution to the consequences of genetic engineering, nanotechnology, and artificial intelligence (AI). In spite of its extraordinarily high social visibility, however, innovation is almost universally misunderstood and misrepresented, typically as synonymous with invention. Invention, in turn, is presented as a value-free, hence ethically neutral, application of new or existing technical knowledge. Treating innovations as inventions implies that ethical issues associated with their implementation derive not from factors intrinsic to innovations, but from how society chooses to implement them. Such an interpretation frees innovators from moral responsibility for the ethically problematic consequences of their activities, as well as buffering these activities from public assessment.

Innovation is a social process in which technical knowledge and inventions are selectively exploited on behalf of (corporate or government) institutional agendas driven by marketplace values or political policies. Inventions, and more broadly scientific and engineering expertise, are merely raw materials for technological innovation, which is the value-laden, ethically provocative process that determines whether an invention is introduced into a society, the form in which it is introduced, and the direction of its subsequent development as society responds to the innovation. The introduction of the automobile, television, nuclear power plants, and the Internet are examples of the value-laden innovation process, including how societal responses feed back into the course of innovation developments over time.

Conceptual Emergence and Practical Engagement

After World War I, individual thinkers, among them the American economist Thorstein Veblen (1857–1929) and future U.S. president Herbert Hoover (1874–1961), argued that technological innovation would be central to national security and industrial competitiveness. Only in Germany, however, was there a strong national commitment to an innovation-driven military and industrial agenda, initiated by Prince Otto von Bismarck in the 1860s and developed further by all subsequent German governments, especially the National Socialists. In the United States and Great Britain, by contrast, calls for such national commitments were repeatedly rejected. For example, George Ellery Hale (1868–1938), one of the world’s leading astronomers and the person responsible for maintaining America’s leadership in telescopy from 1897 into the 1980s, failed in his attempt to win government acceptance of his plan to harness academic scientists to the nation’s war effort during World War I. He failed again in his postwar attempt to create a national research foundation to be cosponsored by the federal government and major corporations.

Since 1970 research by historians of technology has supported a version of the Project Hindsight conclusion. While basic research sometimes pushes innovation, innovation far more often pulls research, which may then enable further innovation. The exponential growth of innovation in the semiconductor and computer industries exemplifies this relationship.

Bush’s report and its basic science push model nevertheless anchored postwar-U.S. science and technology policy. For the first time in U.S. history, there was a mandate for large-scale federal support of basic as well as applied scientific research. The ethics of giving scientists public funds to do research on subjects of their choice gave rise to contentious political debates that held up creation of the NSF in 1950. But the NSF budget for basic research was then and has remained modest compared to the budgets for applied research linked to innovation, which until 1989 was driven primarily by Cold War military agendas and secondarily by the evolving war on cancer, war on AIDS, and Human Genome Project agendas of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and the U.S. space program.

Discover all Food Tech Technologies & Startups

The top 10 food technology trends advance research in sustainable food sources and food waste elimination. Also, rapid improvement in Industry 4.0 is unavoidable in the food industry for improved efficiency, consistency, and scale. 3D food printing is a promising technology to facilitate food production and aid other main trends, ensuring further investment in the 3D food printers and bio-inks. In addition to the major trends, advances in artificial intelligence and big data analytics are valuable for optimizing the food industry operations. Altogether, the food & beverage is moving towards sustainability while improving the overall operational efficiency.

The Food Technology Trends & Startups outlined in this report only scratch the surface of trends that we identified during our in-depth research. Among others, AI & big data will transform the sector as we know it today. Identifying new opportunities and emerging technologies to implement into your business early on goes a long way in gaining a competitive advantage. Get in touch to easily and exhaustively scout relevant technologies & startups that matter to you.

Technology innovation

How does Hollywood lure consumers away from their big-screen TVs and YouTube and back out to the movies? Jeffrey Katzenberg preaches that theaters need to go home systems one better by showing 3-D films, and he’s hell-bent on pushing the entire industry that way.

Blockchain Applications

25 Innovators in Technology

They’re changing the way we do business (and not always for the better). Don’t miss features on Twitter CEO Evan Williams, Google’s gambit with the power grid, and an essay about CEO Steve Jobs’ leave of absence from Apple.

Major Impact: Google towers over the internet era. It controls 64 percent of Web searches, and search is most people’s gateway to what they want to do on the Net. Google owns 57 percent of the market for placing ads on websites. The company operates three dozen massive data centers around the world-giving it, by some estimates, more computing power than any single entity on earth. As if that weren’t enough, Google keeps using its brand, power, and $15.8 billion in cash to stomp like colonialists into other companies’ businesses. Its Android cell-phone operating system encroaches on Apple’s and BlackBerry’s territory. This year, Google is expected to try to grab market share from Microsoft’s Internet Explorer with its Chrome browser and invest heavily in alternative-energy businesses. Wherever Google aims its guns, industries go on red alert.

Eccentric Project: They’re everywhere at Google. One employee wrote code so that people can search in pirate language. Another created a hidden joke: Try typing "Find Chuck Norris" in the search box and click I’m feeling lucky.

2. Jeff Bezos
CEO, Amazon

Bezos also turned into a devicemaker with the kind of design chops and user adoration usually reserved for Apple-and made publishers rethink their business models. In late 2008, Oprah gave Amazon’s Kindle an on-air endorsement, momentarily sending its shares skyward.

Eccentric Project: Blue Origin, which is building rockets for space tourism. First scheduled flight: 2010. Speculation is that it will be possible to hear Bezos’ laugh from space.

3. Steve Jobs

Such is his influence that Steve Jobs stays on the list even during his absence from Apple. He is to the tech industry in the 2000s what the Beatles were to popular music in the 1960s. The iPod changed the music business, and the iPhone and App Store continue to shake up the mobile-phone industry. Before the iPhone, the cell-phone business was all about the size and form of the device. Now the emphasis is shifting to software and what the handset can do.

For now, Apple has the momentum to thrive without its CEO, but the question is whether that can continue if Jobs does not return in June from his leave to deal with his serious health issues. Apple doesn’t seem on the verge of taking on another industry or coming out with a radical new product, and no one is sure whether it could pull off a new revolution without Jobs’ help.

For more than a decade, pundits have predicted that the Web would transform politics. Joe Rospars finally did it. Rospars, still in his 20s (who over 30 would know how to do all this?), served as new-media director for the Obama campaign and used Facebook, MySpace, YouTube, Twitter, text messaging, and electronic fundraising to interact with supporters. Rospars got his start working the Web for Howard Dean’s 2004 presidential bid, then used that knowledge to co-found Blue State Digital. After Obama, campaigns are knocking on the company’s door.

It seems like a no-brainer to redirect the Department of Energy from developing nuclear weapons to fighting global warming, and Steven Chu is the guy to do it. A bona fide scientist, Chu has Obama’s go-ahead to make greentech a priority. Chu has run the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory since 2004 and won a Nobel Prize for figuring out how to cool and trap atoms for examination. He’s long worked on energy and climate-change projects. Last year, he told Reuters, "If I were emperor, I would put the pedal to the floor on energy efficiency and conservation."

Back in 1981, Shigeru Miyamoto created Donkey Kong, Nintendo’s first smash hit. But that was nothing compared with the Wii, Miyamoto’s brainstorm that came out in late 2006. By making videogames simple to control with hand gestures, the Wii revitalized the entire industry. Nintendo has sold more than 36 million Wii consoles, and Wii Sports recently became the bestselling game of all time. (It passed
Super Mario Bros., another game Miyamoto helped create.)

In 2007, Jason Kilar, a preppy former executive, won the job of creating an online TV outlet for a Fox-NBC partnership. It seemed an impossible task, given the anemic results for all previous online-TV efforts. But Kilar coaxed NBC and Fox to post popular content like Saturday Night Live and The Simpsons, added some interactive bells and whistles, and made Hulu simple to use. Launched in March 2008, Hulu was, by fall, streaming more than 235 million videos a month, thanks to SNL clips of Tina Fey as Sarah Palin. Kilar is proving that professional content paid for by advertising has a place on the Web. The networks owe him a pile of gratitude, if not money.

Innovation Map outlines the Top 10 Food Technology Trends & 20 Promising Startups

For this in-depth research on the Top Food Technology Trends & Startups, we analyzed a sample of 5 065 global startups and scaleups. The result of this research is data-driven innovation intelligence that improves strategic decision-making by giving you an overview of emerging technologies & startups in the food industry. These insights are derived by working with our Big Data & Artificial Intelligence-powered StartUs Insights Discovery Platform, covering 2 093 000+ startups & scaleups globally. The platform quickly delivers an exhaustive overview of emerging technologies within a specific field as well as identifies relevant startups & scaleups early on.

In the Innovation Map below, you get an overview of the Top 10 Food Industry Trends & Innovations that impact food tech companies worldwide. Moreover, the FoodTech Innovation Map reveals 20 hand-picked startups, all working on emerging technologies that advance their field. To explore custom insights, simply get in touch with us.

Top 10 Food Technology Trends


Tree Map reveals the Impact of the Top 10 Food Technology Trends

The Tree Map below illustrates the top 10 Food Technology trends that will impact companies in 2022. Consumers shifting to alternative protein sources is the most significant trend in the food industry. Further, the increased awareness of nutrition and health concerns during the pandemic drives the demand for nutraceuticals and personalized nutrition. Food eCommerce is another big trend that is fueled by the COVID-19 situation. Also, there is a substantial rise in food safety concerns directly impacting food transparency across the food value chain. With digitization being an integral part of the food and beverage industry, companies are adopting restaurant digitization, digital food management, and food robotics to improve operations. Food brands are also focussing on food waste reduction and are adopting zero-waste practices. 3D food printers are also a part of the food technology trends, enabling many other major trends such as meat alternatives and personalized nutrition.



Yet another application of AI, generative AI is set to raise the standards of AI use cases and provide reasons for organizations around the world to adopt it. It works on an algorithm that has the capability to use data in form of text, audio, images, and so on and generate similar content. This self-learning algorithm allows for higher-quality outputs. This application of AI comes with its set of limitations, and thus provides room for innovations and opportunities to come up with technologies/ways to tackle them. Healthcare can be majorly benefitted from generative AI, and IBM has already begun to leverage it by researching Antimicrobial peptides to find drugs for Covid-19. Gartner predicts that by 2025, generative AI may account for 10% of all data produced, which currently lies at 1% today.

From smart cars to wearables such as smartwatches, to TVs, smartphones, and more, various technologies have resulted in making our lives more convenient and tech-driven. IoT is one of the major driving technologies behind this connectedness of smart devices. The number of wearable connected devices is forecasted to reach more than 1 billion by 2022 as per Statista . With many more brands entering this segment, we can expect newer and interesting features added to the list. The wearables market, though dominated by smartwatches, is seeing many new products such as hearables, smart patches, and more. Applications of smart wearables in today’s Covid-19 era, to track Covid symptoms was a relevant and much-needed innovation and will continue to be as we fight to get rid of Covid-19 in 2022 too. Presently 4G, but 5G soon too will help with the connectivity of such devices. As per Statista, the number of wearable devices linked to 4G will increase by 89 million in 2022, connecting over 900 million people. Newer innovations such as smart helmets are also about to experience growth as they come with interesting features such as tracking speed, stamina, listening to music, GPS services, and more.

Smart Car

Cloud-Native Platforms (CNPs)

Gartner predicts that by 2025, 95% of all new digital initiatives will have CNP as their foundation, up from the current 40% in 2021. In the current times, the need to adopt cloud-native application/approach rather than the traditional on premises approach of infrastructure is more evident than ever. Mckinsey reports that by 2022, more than 70% of enterprises will depend on some form of cloud management tool for various business purposes. Taking cloud computing up a notch, CNPs aim to make infrastructure management effortless. Speed of service, reduced costs, auto scalability and more are some benefits of CNP. The global cloud revenue is $474 billion in 2022, as it becomes the core of business operations in this ever-so digitized world.

Revolutionizing the retail industry, this AR/VR trend is making heads turn with its innovative and catchy virtual try-on capability. In-store- AR mirrors/Smart mirrors provide a delightful experience to customers as they allow them to virtually try on clothes which also saves their time and effort to a great extent. According to Businesswire , the application of VR and AR in the retail market is projected to reach US$ 17864.86 million by 2028 from US$ 3790.94 million in 2021 at a CAGR of 24.8% for the forecasted period. This depicts the scope of innovation and adoption that is about to happen in this field. As of now, only major brands such as Ikea, Loreal, Nike, and so on are leveraging the potential of AR/VR applications in retail and hopefully, 2022 will see further increased adoption. Read more about applications of AR/VR we can see in the retail sector in 2022 and beyond here .



In a sphere with so much diversity, there are a few things that all entrepreneurs have in common: they’re full of passion and ambition, and they use these as a driving force to build empires that solve some of the world’s toughest problems.

what is entrepreneurship


Entrepreneurship bezeichnet zum einen das Ausnutzen unternehmerischer Gelegenheiten sowie den kreativen und gestalterischen unternehmerischen Prozess in einer Organisation, bzw. einer Phase unternehmerischen Wandels, und zum anderen eine wissenschaftliche Teildisziplin der Betriebswirtschaftslehre. Die Entrepreneurship-Forschung (auch Gründungsforschung) präsentiert sich als ein interdisziplinäres Forschungsgebiet. Neben betriebswirtschaftlichen Theorien kommen im Rahmen von Forschungsarbeiten u.a. auch methodische Ansätze aus der Volkswirtschaftslehre, der Geografie, der Soziologie, der Psychologie und der Rechtswissenschaft zum Einsatz.

Entrepreneurship bezeichnet zum einen das Ausnutzen unternehmerischer Gelegenheiten sowie den kreativen und gestalterischen unternehmerischen Prozess in einer Organisation, bzw. einer Phase unternehmerischen Wandels, und zum anderen eine wissenschaftliche Teildisziplin der Betriebswirtschaftslehre. Die Entrepreneurship-Forschung (auch Gründungsforschung) präsentiert sich als ein interdisziplinäres Forschungsgebiet. Neben betriebswirtschaftlichen Theorien kommen im Rahmen von Forschungsarbeiten u.a. auch methodische Ansätze aus der Volkswirtschaftslehre, der Geografie, der Soziologie, der Psychologie und der Rechtswissenschaft zum Einsatz.

Bedeutung des Unternehmers bzw. des Unternehmensgründers

Ökonomische Theorien haben den Unternehmer als zentrale Figur wirtschaftlicher Aktivität lange Zeit vernachlässigt. Erste Erklärungsversuche zur Rolle des Unternehmers finden sich zwar bereits gegen Ende des 18. Jahrhunderts; verstärkt in den Blick der ökonomischen Theoretiker gerückt ist der Unternehmer jedoch erst im Laufe des 20. Jahrhunderts. Im zeitgeschichtlichen Ablauf sind dabei verschiedene Definitionen für den Begriff des Entrepreneurs vorgeschlagen worden, aus denen in der Folge eine Reihe verschiedener wissenschaftlicher Schulen entstanden ist. Nachstehend wird eine Auswahl einflussreicher Vertreter der Ökonomie und deren Definition des Unternehmers dargestellt; zusammengenommen geben diese ein umfassendes Bild der vielfältigen möglichen Unternehmerfunktionen.

1) Cantillion (1734): Cantillion sieht den Entrepreneur als ein Individuum, das von seinem Streben nach Profit angetrieben wird und mit der Fähigkeit ausgestattet ist, Güter billig zu erwerben und teurer zu verkaufen. Der Entrepreneur zeichnet sich durch die Übernahme von Risiken aus.

3) Knight (1921): Für Knight ist der Unternehmer vornehmlich ein Träger von Ungewissheit (true uncertainty). Dieser Ungewissheit kann im Gegensatz zum Risiko keine exakte Eintrittswahrscheinlichkeit zugeordnet werden. Der Wille, sich dieser unkalkulierbaren Ungewissheit zu stellen, begründet nach Knight den wahren Unternehmer.

5) Kirzner (1973): Die Unternehmerfunktion nach Kirzner ist geprägt durch die Nutzung von Arbitragemöglichkeiten. Unvollständige Informationen auf einem Markt werden zum unternehmerischen Vorteil genutzt und es entsteht ein neues Marktgleichgewicht. Der Kirznersche und der Schumpetersche Entrepreneur ergänzen sich folglich zu einem umfassenden Konzept.

Importance of Entrepreneurship

what is entrepreneurship

  • Entrepreneurs create jobs: Without entrepreneurs, jobs wouldn’t exist. Entrepreneurs take on the risk to employ themselves. Their ambition to continue their business’ growth eventually leads to the creation of new jobs . As their business continues to grow, even more jobs are created.
  • Entrepreneurs innovate : Some of the greatest technologies in today’s society have come from businesses. The technological advances come out of a need to solve a problem, create efficiencies, or improve the world. In periods where there’s more advancement in technology, there’s usually an entrepreneur to thank for it.
  • Entrepreneurs create change: Entrepreneurs dream big. So naturally, some of their ideas will make worldwide change. They might create a new product that solves a burning problem or take on the challenge to explore something never explored before. Many aim to make the world better with their products, ideas, or businesses.
  • Entrepreneurs give to society: While some have this notion of the rich being evil and greedy, they often do more for the greater good than the average person. They make more money and thus pay more in taxes, which helps fund social services. Entrepreneurs are some of the biggest donors to charities and nonprofits for various causes. Some seek to invest their money in creating solutions to help poorer communities have access to things we take for granted, like clean drinking water and good health care.
  • Entrepreneurs add to national income: Entrepreneurship generates new wealth in an economy. New ideas and improved products or services from entrepreneurs allow for the growth of new markets and new wealth.

Modern Perspective of Entrepreneurship

Along with some other disciplines, the study of entrepreneurship is also paving its way as an important sub-discipline in many universities and colleges. This means that modern youth is extensively interested in pursuing entrepreneurship as a career path.

Due to this reason, several courses have been introduced related to entrepreneurship. Like any other important and popular discipline, entrepreneurship is also growing rapidly. Today, more and more people are in favour of becoming independent in their professional careers and therefore, there are fewer criticisms to be faced by any aspiring entrepreneur.

Social media age

Living in the social media age sure has some advantages if you have chosen entrepreneurship as your career. Modern day entrepreneurs have the perk of expanding their businesses and reaching out to the target audience with the help of social media.

This eventually provides the opportunity for any entrepreneur to pave his way into the global marketplace. Entrepreneurship in the modern world is something any independent individual with leadership quality would opt for.

Modern day entrepreneur

With the advent of social media age and advanced technologies, entrepreneurship became more complex. Even though there are several ideas and techniques that may be used during entrepreneurial ventures, this somehow does not make the life of an entrepreneur easy. With multiple marketing techniques, reaching out to the target audience became easy.

However, it also increased the workload of an entrepreneur. With the demanding marketplace, the need of innovative ideas also increased along with the desire to be unique in your business venture. Therefore, in entrepreneurship, the many advantages that may be gained by an entrepreneur are also accompanied by a few disadvantages.

Outlook of modern-day entrepreneurship

Some of the aspiring entrepreneurs may have the advantage of being supported by their families when laying down the foundation for their entrepreneurial venture. However, today an independent entrepreneur is highly appreciated as entrepreneurs are considered as risk takers who are willing to reach the heights in the corporate world with their own hard work. The risk of starting everything from scratch is not the kind of risk everyone has the will and courage to take.

Challenges / criticism

Due to popular belief, entrepreneurship is considered to be an easy way out for people not in favour of working under or for someone else. In several ways, many aspects of this statement might be completely true. However, just like any other profession, being an entrepreneur and choosing entrepreneurship as a career may come with several challenges. There are multiple criticisms and challenges that every entrepreneur may face throughout their career.

Monotonous ideas

The stress of coming up with an innovative idea that has not been used in the market before always lingers on every entrepreneur. When choosing entrepreneurship as a career path, it is crystal clear that the only way to stay on top of the corporate world is by coming up with brand new ideas. Creativity is the key to success in entrepreneurship.

However, with such a vast global marketplace, the ideas proposed are often monotonous which leads to the trouble of disapproval from the critics. This is the most common yet crucial challenge that is faced by every entrepreneur.

Disadvantage of being a start-up business

One of the most crucial and problematic disadvantages is the challenge of being a start-up business in the market. This challenge often leads to the trouble of working late hours during the initial phase of your business.

It is often a very crucial challenge to be the start-up business in the corporate world and then pave your way to the top. When facing dynamic and extensive competition, paving your way to the top may not be a very easy task!

Major responsibilities

One of the perks of choosing entrepreneurship as your career is the independence that you get by being an entrepreneur. However, being in charge of a unified team and having complete control over the decisions you make comes with a lot of responsibility.

This might prove to be very challenging for your business. Being the in charge means being responsible for anything that may go wrong in the business. This may prove to be very challenging for any entrepreneur.

Risks of success or failure

There are several risks that may come along with entrepreneurship. Like mentioned earlier, an entrepreneur is responsible for several things. The risks associated with adopting and implementing new and innovative ideas may sometimes result in failure.


How to Hire a Content Writer (The Right Way)

Once you begin contacting some possible new content creators, you want to begin to pay close attention to their responses. Much of your communication is going to be digital, not in person. Digital communication makes building a relationship and getting to know them a bit different than a regular in-person interview. However, the same principles still apply.

content writer scripted

How to Hire a Content Writer (The Right Way)

If you’re a content marketer, then you understand the struggle of keeping up with your loyal customer base. Curating content includes more than just writing. It involves editing, graphics creation, branding, marketing and more. And your content must be engaging, educational and entertaining at all times.

It can be daunting to hire outside help, for fear of ruining your business reputation and status. It may take some time and effort, but the right fit is out there. It’s possible to choose freelance content writer successfully; you simply need to know where to look.

These skilled content writers exist, and they can help generate new leads for your business. They can add value and authority to your blog and online content that otherwise would have gone unnoticed. You need them for your overall success.

Look at Content Writer’s Past Experience

working experience content writing

Once you have narrowed it down to a few freelancers, you think you may want to contact, go ahead and give each one a little more consideration. Review their portfolios and past work. Take the time to read their writing and see if their style, voice, and perspective are in line with you and your business.

If you run a beauty product company, you may come across a talented, skilled writer whose past work is mostly in engineering and mechanics. Perhaps this individual, although professional, is not a good fit for the type of audience you are trying to connect with.

Look for a person, who has experience or in-depth interest in your field. A writer who specializes in marketing isn’t probably a good fit. Content Marketing Institute writes that many copywriters are eager to accept work from anywhere. But writing about energy-efficient window installations and organic acne treatments will cause them to spread themselves thin. This way one hardly gains knowledge and experience in a field.

Step #2: Define Your Content Needs

You want to hire content writers whose strengths align with your needs. Your writer can be the best landing page copywriter but be mediocre at crafting an interesting story in your articles; the same can be said for many other content types.

For example, I love writing articles and related content like emails and ebooks, but I’m not comfortable writing technical copy because it’s not my specialization. I could do it, but you may not receive the best ROI from my skills.

Look at what the writer has done in the past; in there, you will find not only what they are most experienced with, but you will also see what they can do with each content type. Find the patterns that you find and base your decision on them.

Be clear on what you want before you hire content writers. If you want fun and lighthearted content, look for writers that consistently write with those attributes. Take a look at their portfolio and see how they write there. The same applies to specialties; for example, if you want an email writer, look for writers who explicitly say they are good at writing emails.

Save Yourself Some Time: Hire a Content Agency Instead

Content marketing agency

Content Agencies Do A LOT

Agencies have editors on staff to make sure your content is fact-checked and ready for publishing, and they’ve already vetted their staff to ensure that they can meet and exceed the needs of each and every client.

Content comes in many different forms, and the only way to know what types of content perform best for your brand is to measure site traffic, click-through rates, and other data. With a thorough analysis of results, you can build upon your existing content strategy and make even better content moving forward.

Digital agencies also make it a point to hire content marketers with different backgrounds and different types of experience. Whether you’re publishing a science blog, running a tech company, or selling fashion accessories, a great agency can provide you with a content writer who has expertise in your specific niche.

Providing your audience with quality content is the best way to build brand awareness and generate sales. If content isn’t already at the top of your to-do list, it’s time to make it a priority and find a content marketing writer who can exceed results and increase traffic to your site.

Sure, you may be able to get away with hiring a single content writer in the beginning. But when you start to see results and need to ramp up content creation, an agency with a full staff will be right there and ready to scale as your business grows.


Here s How to Deal With Rejection in a Healthy Way, According to Psychologists

After you’ve taken some time to calm down and get grounded, it’s important to pay attention to what you’re feeling — and a great way to do this is write it all down in a journal. One exercise you can do, says Becker-Phelps, is to write down all the emotions you’re feeling — and then pair them with the thoughts that are going with those emotions. “Just by doing that, you’re getting some distance, and then you can cope with the rejection better, because you’re not just all tangled up in it,” she says.

How to Deal With Rejection

Here’s How to Deal With Rejection in a Healthy Way, According to Psychologists

How to Deal With Rejection

We’ve all been rejected at one point or another — whether it be from a new love interest, a job you applied to, or a group of friends. Whichever kind of rejection you’re facing, the fact of the matter is that rejection hurts and when you put it out all on the line only to get a heartbreaking “no,” it’s enough to make anyone want to stop trying to put themselves out there for anything.

When you let rejection hold you back like this, though, it can wreak havoc on all aspects of your personal life. In fact, according to Leslie Becker-Phelps, Ph.D., psychologist and author of Bouncing Back from Rejection: Build the Resilience You Need to Get Back Up When Life Knocks You Down, dealing with rejection in unhealthy ways can not only negatively impact your personal relationships, but can even lead to debilitating conditions such as depression and anxiety.

Fortunately, though, there are ways you can deal with rejection that can help you come out of it stronger. Getting rejected doesn’t have to be the end-all be-all, and the experience can actually help you in the long run to become more resilient in your life. So if you’re wondering how to deal with rejection from friends, family, coworkers, or a crush, here are some of the best psychologist-approved tips and techniques to help you bounce back from the experience:

Examine your own role in why you got rejected.

Some rejections truly aren’t as personal as they feel. Love rejection on Tinder, for example, simply means that some stranger took all of 20 seconds to make a snap judgment based on criteria you’ll never be privy to. But if, say, you used to be a member of the office happy hour crew and your after-work drink invites have suddenly vanished, it may be time to review your possible role in why that came to be.

Think back to the last time you spent with the party in question (you know, the rejecter) , whether it was on a date or in a job interview. Winch suggests a mental replay of what, to your best recollection, you said or did, and how they reacted. Is there anything you could’ve done differently to improve the encounter, or can you at least prevent it from happening again in the future?

“This isn’t to say the other person had no responsibility,” Winch says, “but the value in that examination is to learn what we might need to be mindful of what we hadn’t paid sufficient attention to previously.”

Don’t Look Back with Rose-Colored Glasses

When we experience a rejection, we are often more inclined to build up whatever or whoever is rejecting us. Jobs can start to sound better when we don’t get them. Dates may appear more attractive after they don’t call back. And relationships that were rocky or made us miserable may start to seem blissful once they’ve ended. Dealing with a rejection is a lot harder when we are mourning something that didn’t really exist the rosy way we remember it.

Often, couples who struggle with closeness are already dealing with some degree of what Dr. Robert Firestone calls a “fantasy bond,” an illusion of connection and security that replaces real love, intimacy, and affection. They settle for the form of being in a relationship, while missing out on the real respect, warmth, and attraction that drew them together in the first place. Eventually, when one partner decides to end the relationship, the other person is left mourning, not only the relationship, but the fantasy they created of being connected to the other. They forget or ignore the ways they struggled, the parts of them that didn’t gel so well with the other person, and the qualities they didn’t like in their partner or about the relationship.

When we feel rejected, even when we feel anger at the other person or the situation, we’re often, on some level more willing to tear ourselves apart, while building up the one who’s rejecting us. We idealize the person or the relationship and long for it, while simultaneously reinforcing the idea that we are less than or unworthy. What we must realize is that this feeling of unworthiness often has much deeper roots inside us, and what’s tormenting us often has less to do with the actual reality of what we lost and more to do with a fundamental negative feeling about ourselves that drives us to believe fantasy over reality.

Redirect your thoughts on moving forward

You’ve faced rejection and survived it, now don’t let it hold you back from life! How will you apply what you learned to the future? What life advice did the situation give you? The best part of rejection is looking forward and learning not to be so hard on yourself in the future. “Moving on can mean finding the courage to try again, whether that’s going up for another promotion or asking someone out for coffee,” Savage says.

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How to Write a Paper About Psychology

How to Write a Paper About Psychology

Psychology is a special subject with special needs. If you miss out on the requirements, you mess the whole assignment. Are you struggling to write a psychology paper? The following are guidelines to help you write one:

Decide Which Subject About Psychology You Want To Write About

There are different aspects of psychology, for example, clinical psychology, children development, cognitive psychology, and social psychology. Each of these disciplines requires different information. Therefore, before you decide on which subject to delve in, ensure you read and understand each of them. After that, select the one that you feel comfortable writing about. If you are not sure, psychological books and internet resources will help you distinguish them and make a wise decision. 


Doing research is the key to writing an incredible paper regardless of your field of study. In psychology, you need to read psychological books. Additionally, reach out to internet resources. Since psychology is vast, you have to be sure of where you do your research. For example, if you intend to write about a disorder and the type of therapy psychologists perform, you should focus on clinical psychology related sources. Psychology often takes time to comprehend. Therefore, do not hurry your research process. Be slow, but extract quality data for your paper. 

Listen To Podcasts

Listening to podcasts is a rare habit. Most psychological topics have successful stories embedded in them. Listening to these stories through podcasts will better your understanding and keep you open-minded. Choose podcasts that relate to the topic you are writing. Additionally, ensure you check the creator of the podcast before you listen to it, and select ones created by psychology experts. 

Seek Online Writing Services

If you are a psychological student, or you want to learn about psychology, you will attest to its uniqueness. It requires some level of understanding, a quality that takes time for some students to develop. If you face challenges writing a psychology paper, turn to a website offering college paper writing service for help. Let them complete the paper for you and learn from them.

Create an Outline

Like other college papers, psychology-related papers follow specific guidelines. Before you write one, ensure that you have the correct guideline by creating a draft outline and presenting it to your supervisor for approval. Outlines guides and make your final writing easier. If you skip this phase, you may end up deviating from the course guidelines and make too many errors.

Write the Paper

You have the information you require. You also have a condensed and approved outline. Now it is time to write the paper. Do it carefully and pay attention not to misspell psychological terms. While it is mandatory to edit your paper, avoid making errors at this stage to make sure you shorten your editing time. However, this is not the stage to stress out. Write the paper the best way possible then check the mistakes later. 


In psychology, you will encounter too much jargon and unfamiliar terms. If you misuse or misspell them, you may not get the grades you desire. That is why it is significant to edit after you have finished writing. Check for grammatical errors, plagiarism, and others. 


The first edit in psychology may not guarantee your paper the perfection it deserves. Read it aloud as you listen. Give a friend also to read it aloud for you. Ask them their opinion. In case there are mistakes, correct them.


By now, you should be able to attempt your psychology papers. However, if you still cannot get it right, continue practicing until you nail it.


I agree that mindfulness should ultimately be developed into theory mainly because of the immense interaction that it plays with the human brain. As portrayed by Dr Siegel, mindfulness can be classified using the three R’s namely: reflection, relationships and resilience. It is important to however start nurturing this principle to an individual at an early stage of their lives to reap significant benefits from the same.

It is true that resilience is a focal point within the air force as our commander mainly focuses on mental, spiritual and physical resilience. These three can be linked to mindfulness which forms another reason as to why I believe it should be developed into theory. Resilience mainly focuses on the brain and how it is effectively able to adapt well in the face of challenging times.

I particularly enjoyed his focus on relationships especially since technology has really taken dominance of our lives endangering the solidity of relationships we have today. I agree with his point that the number one contributor to happiness and wisdom is fostering of positive relationships. That the more we give to others the happier we also become showing that happiness can also be achieved when material things are not the subject. Happiness has always been linked with reduced stress and improved health showing that mindfulness has some health benefits if properly nurtured.

Parents should guide their children especially with the reflection phase enabling them to learn how to observe and interpret different things in life. In this way, children will grow up with significant knowledge and will also know the importance of having positive relationships from a young age.